With reference to the following transcript,

With mention to the undermentioned transcript, what are the characteristic characteristics of interaction between an grownup health professional and a immature kid?

Mum What have you been making? What were you making with Daddy at the

park to acquire soiled custodies?

Alex I merely acquire an ice-cream, Mummy.

Mum You had an ice-cream and your ice-cream made them that dirty?

Alex No

Mum Well, what made your custodies dirty?

Alex I have n’t had, I have n’t had a soiled cone.

Mum You did n’t hold a soiled cone. No.

Alex No.

Mom So what made your custodies dirty in the park so?

Alex I had some clay. I had some clay on.

Mum You got some clay on the, did you?

Alex Yeh.

Spoken exchanges between grownups and kids display peculiar characteristic characteristics. These characteristics are preponderantly apparent in exchanges between health professionals and immature really kids, for illustration parents. This is by and large due to societal and legal function of parentage. This carries influential powers and duties toward the kid frequently exercised via linguistic communication usage. Critical discourse analysis can be used on transcripts made from spoken discourse interactions to show this. A text can be analytically studied to happen illustrations of typical address features associated with this type of interaction. In add-on to the canned text, contextual information is peculiarly relevant to determine significances within the interaction. The illustration above can be used to demo this.

This exchange took topographic point at bath clip between a three-year old kid and his female parent. The conversation is based around the child’s female parent trying to illicit information from the kid in respects to how he managed to acquire his custodies so dirty. The conversation has been transcribed in a “straightforward” written text manner and uses conventional spelling and grammar. The child’s name “Alex” and his female parent is referred to as “mum” . These names are used at the oncoming of each bend in a similar manner to a drama book, to bespeak who is talking. This transcript is easy to read as it presents the conversation in a manner, which would be familiar to most readers, as a piece of written discourse. Grammatical indexs imply to readers how the exchange has progressed. For illustration, inquiry Markss indicate modulation ; “What have you been making? ” Commas and full Michigans indicate intermissions ; “You didn’t have a soiled cone. No.” etc leting the reader to do opinions sing colloquial flow. The semantic field of cleansing is clear through insistent usage of words bespeaking the child’s hands necessitating to be washed. However, the situational context of the kid holding a bath is equivocal from the text entirely.

This format of transcript nevertheless does hold restrictions for analytical intents. A moderate manner transcript or an intricate manner would supply more grounds of contextual information for research workers. Further inside informations of activity could be included i.e. are the talkers in the bath? Are they acquiring ready to bathe? Are they standing still whilst holding the conversation? These inside informations would take the research worker to obtain a better matter-of-fact apprehension of the interaction. Apart from inquiry Markss bespeaking modulation, there are no other prosodic characteristics apparent. It is ill-defined if the female parent is warning the kid or doing general questions. The length of intermissions is non indicated, which does non demo the overall length of conversation and the most dominant participant in the conversation.

This transcript shows no indicant of regional idiom, ethnicity or societal position of the talkers. The address is represented in Standard English format with small grounds of oculus idiom. The last vocalization from Alex “yeh.” is the lone hint as to individualized address features. Research workers may assume that as Alex is so immature, his address may non be Standard in manner. However, this transcript does non portray this. Without the background information bespeaking Alex’s age, it would be ill-defined that he was so immature. This transcript besides lacks eclipsis indexs, which are often used in more complex written texts. As eclipsis is a common characteristic of spoken interactions, this may turn out utile for a more in depth analysis. This could be demonstrated as silent asks Alex about his ice-cream cone ; Dendranthema grandifloruom: “you didn’t have a soiled cone. No.” Alex: “No.” ( I didn’t have a soiled ice-cream cone. ) The format of a written text may find the degree in which a critical discourse analysis can be carried out. A more elaborate text could supply research workers with more relevant contextual information as to how an interaction has progressed. Spoken discourse by and large includes legion non-verbal actions, which contribute towards intending such as facial looks, tone of voice and organic structure linguistic communication. An intricate written text may look more complex to the reader but will incorporate valuable non-lexical information.

The function of the health professional in footings of act uponing early linguistic communication acquisition for a kid remains paramount. Typically, most of the child’s colloquial interactions will be on a one to one footing with this grownup. Therefore, great attention is frequently taken to guarantee the kid has entree to important and right linguistic communication manners. The grownup is the more skilled and able linguistic communication user and normally controls the conversation. This relationship between health professional and kid has been termed “ Adult-child dyad.” Normally, as the kid begins to utilize linguistic communication fruitfully, due to this relationship, they have already acquired assorted societal and communicative modus operandis. This aids the kid to find a referential context associated with linguistic communication usage, leting them to deduce significance from the interaction. It has been suggested, that in add-on to this, many non-linguistic interactions “scaffold” a child’s early linguistic communication usage. ( Ninio and Bruner 1978 ) A kid geting linguistic communication usage therefore, associates contextual significance utilizing both verbal and non- verbal signals. Research has shown that frequent synergistic adult-child couple relationships, aid early linguistic communication users to set up the health professionals “attentional focus.” ( Tomasello and Farrar 2004 ) This ensures the kid learns relevant colloquial manners, which will help their verbal and societal acquisition of socially acceptable linguistic communication usage.

Joint attentional focal point between grownup and kid frequently produces colloquial manners, which follow a similar form. Characteristic characteristics associated within this context include more vocalizations but shorter exchanges. The health professional normally directs the interaction, commanding the conversation bespeaking their power position within this peculiar context. A typical illustration could be the health professional inquiring the kid frequent inquiries associated with the current activity. This involves the kid in the conversation and ensures a smooth turn-taking manner. The health professional normally uses short less grammatically complex sentences, frequently utilizing direct oculus contact and matching organic structure linguistic communication in an effort to illicit a response from the kid. Question tickets are often used at the terminal of statements to guarantee the kid continues the conversation, e.g. : “That’s a nice tractor, isn’t it? ” Conversational focal point is frequently centred on the immediate activity, restricting the child’s demand to remember information sing absent objects or state of affairss. It has been suggested, that kids frequently learn words more easy, which are associated with objects that the kid is already focused upon. ( ) Words introduced into the conversation which would necessitate a alteration in the child’s attentional focal point are frequently less likely to be acquired.

The interaction between Alex and his Dendranthema grandifloruom shows several cases of a typical adult-child couple relationship. The conversation is good structured with about equal sums of floor infinite by each talker. The transcript shows no indicant of overlapping address, bespeaking each talker waits for the other to complete their vocalization before get downing theirs. This indicates an of import colloquial societal factor in pattern. Alex shows grounds of two false starts during the conversation e.g. : “I haven’t had, I haven’t had a soiled cone.” This is a common characteristic of a kid when geting linguistic communication accomplishments. This could be due to Alex necessitating longer to treat his response and for him to take the correct words. The caregiver’s initial bend shows issues mentioned in respects to supplying the kid with intricate contextual information. Mum asks Alex “What have you been making? ” This is instantly reinforced with a more elaborate inquiry, which provides Alex with farther information, which should let him to reply the inquiry more easy.

The 2nd inquiry elaborates on the first indicating to Alex that his Dendranthema grandifloruom is bespeaking information about his trip to the park with his pa and how he got his custodies so soiled. However, although this is a more elaborate inquiry, Alex is still diffident as to his mum’s petition for information. Alex responds: “I merely acquire an ice-cream, mummy.” Alex has answered the inquiry about what he did at the park but has failed to reply how his custodies got dirty. This suggests that mum’s inquiry was excessively complex for Alex to understand. This leads to some confusion within the interaction. Mum has to clear up with Alex if it was the ice pick that made his custodies dirty, to which Alex answers: “No.” Following this, silent so asks Alex: “well, what made your custodies soil? ” Alex eventually responds with the information that his Dendranthema grandifloruom has wanted, that he got mud on his custodies, which made them dirty. The interaction besides shows an case of Alex’s mum grammatically rectifying his address. Alex’s response: “I haven’t had, I haven’t had a soiled cone” is corrected by his Dendranthema grandifloruom: “you didn’t have a soiled cone. No.” This is besides a common characteristic of adult-child dyad relationships, as the health professional is the more able linguistic communication user and finally a function theoretical account for the kid.

The transcript provides grounds of a typical adult-child couple relationship between a female parent and kid during a typical day-to-day modus operandi. There is grounds of several lingual features distinctive of this type of interaction. The text shows how confusion can originate if address used with a kid is excessively complex. However, the transcript is of a straightforward format, which limits analytical grounds.

Mentions

Crystal, David. ( 1995 ) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. 426 – 434.

Fairclough, Norman. ( 1995 ) Critical Discourse analysis – The Critical Study of Language. 187 – 191.

Fairclough, Norman. ( 2001 ) Language and Power – Second Edition. 9 –10, 92 – 94.

Holmes, Janet. ( 2001 ) An Introduction to Sociolinguistics – Second Edition. 374 – 375.

Peter, Trudgill. ( 2000 ) Sociolinguistics – An Introduction to Language and Society. 110 – 111.

Chambers, J. K. ( 2003 ) Sociolinguistic Theory – Second Edition. 8 – 9.

Wertsch, James V. Dowley – McNamee, Gillian. McLane, Joan B. Budwig, Nancy A. ( 1980 ) Child Development. 1215 – 1221.