With Andre Antoine the modern theater began to boom. How?
“March 30, 1887 was a memorable day of the month in French theater. It marked the opening public presentation of Antoine’s freshly founded Theatre Libre. On that momentous dark, Antoine offered witnesss a new trade name of realism/naturalism: a ‘slice of life’ production that brought audiences face to face with themselves and with their environment.” ( Knapp, 1988: 8 )
As the above citation suggests, the outgrowth of Andre Antoine ( 1858-1943 ) onto the mainstream Gallic theatrical circuit constituted a watershed minute in the history of European play. Although audiences of the clip may non hold been to the full cognizant of the extent of the alteration that they were witnessing, the displacement towards a more realistic vision of the theater after the coming of the Theatre Libre is really much apparent in the modern epoch when hindsight permits us to see a more accurate portrayal of the historical development of play. Plaies have by and large become progressively more associated with societal consciousness and a portraiture of life that is a more accurate representation of cultural worlds in the aftermath of Andre Antoine. The undermentioned essay seeks to analyze how precisely this has come about.
The most cardinal point to understand is that Antoine was a merchandise of his clip, stand foring the merger of the relevant societal, economic, political and cultural paradigms of the era. Therefore, his dramas remain rooted in that historical context. Furthermore, it is no happenstance that it was in France that the Theatre Libre was able to boom. With the
huge societal and political turbulences that accompanied the terminal of Napoleon III in 1871 ( representing the terminal of dictatorship in Gallic civilization ) , Antoine and his coevalss were composing, moving and directing on the cusp of a new cultural moving ridge, one that would preside over the flower of French artistic enterprises, peculiarly as the expressionism and pragmatism of the five de siecle took its clasp on mainstream popular civilization. It is an of import point and one that should be born in head throughout the balance of the treatment: though doubtless a alone theatrical revolutionist, Andre Antoine was besides portion of a much broader artistic motion that took root in France during his life-time.
Antoine and the Theatre Libre were besides extremely professional. Although play historiographers like to indicate to the expressed naturalism inherent in his dramas ( characterised as a rejection of the more formalized acting manner of the late 19th century and a by and large thin secret plan line ) , there was besides a great trade of construction and calm in his work. Actors were still required to do certain that their voices were powerful plenty to make every portion of the theater room and the audience was ne’er considered to be a secondary factor in the Theatre Libre, irrespective of some of the claims to the contrary. In add-on, the simple economic jussive moods of experimental theater meant that dramas could non hold been made if they had non adhered to at least some of the cardinal rules of mainstream dramatic production.
“The Masterss of the play during this period were professional authors whose support depended on the frequence of their productions.” ( Valency, 1963:61 )
Again, we see that Antoine was a merchandise of his clip ; in this case manifested as the increasing significance of the commercial and capitalist domain in artistic ingestion, which would non hold been the instance under the absolute monarchies and the Napoleonic absolutisms earlier in the century when royal and personal backing were the key to acquiring dramas produced.
There are similarly claims that it is non Antoine and the Theatre Libre who should be credited with holding revolutionised Gallic theater ; instead it should be his direct literary inspiration, Emile Zola. Without the realistic Hagiographas of Zola and his coevalss it is dubious whether Antoine would hold been able to hold struck the same profound cultural chord with the audience. Though his moving manner was alone and intensely realistic, the fact that the dramas were dramatizations of landmark European novels should non be underestimated when trying to foreground how precisely Andre Antoine was able to re?direct the impulse of Gallic play in the manner that he did.
One besides needs to pattern cautiousness with respects to the phrases of ‘realism’ and ‘naturalism’ in a dramatic context. Both in the modern epoch can look to be particularly obscure ; descriptive yet all encompassing: non rather giving an penetration into how precisely the pragmatism of the acting manner of Antoine and the Theatre Libre was so of import in the growing of French theater. In the concluding analysis, pragmatism and the realistic portraiture of life’s events should ever be the raison d’etre of theater, or at least this is the premise today.
“‘Realistic’ is a slippy term in dramatic unfavorable judgment. In 1909, after the best of the realistic dramas had been written, Edward Gordon Craig observed in theOn the Art of the Theatrethat the artificiality of the Kembles had been supplanted by the more natural Edmund Kean, who had been surpassed in being natural by Macready, who seemed stilted when Henry Irving arrived. In clip Antoine made Irving look unreal, and in bend Antoine’s moving became mere ruse by the side of Stanislavsky.” ( Styan, 1983:1 )
The point being made here is that one time pragmatism and naturalism had been embraced non merely in French theater but besides in every aspect of French artistic, originative and political civilization, each subsequent look of this motion pushed the boundaries of the predecessor until all that went before it appeared to be disused. Viewed through this prism, pragmatism in French theater can be seen to be a structured and superimposed patterned advance until the motion of course ran out of originative steam in the first decennaries of the 20th century. Once more, we return hence to the ultimate premise that Andre Antoine and the Theatre Libre were so merchandises of the clip in which they performed ; progressive and radical surely, but besides extremely dependent upon the societal, political and cultural context of the era.
Boyer, R.D. ( Ed. ) ( 1979 )Realism in European Theatre and Drama, 1870?1920: A BibliographyLondon: Greenwood
Charnow, S. ( 2005 )Theatre, Politics and Markets in Fin de Siecle Paris: Staging ModernityLondon: Palgrave Macmillan
Knapp, B.L. ( 1988 )The Reign of the Theatrical Director: Gallic Theatre, 1887-1924New York: The Whitson Publishing Company
Styan, J.L. ( 1983 )Modern Drama in Theory and Practice, Volume 1: Realism and NaturalismCambridge: Cambridge University Press
Valency, M. ( 1963 )The Flower and the Castle: An Introduction to Modern DramaLondon and New York: Macmillan