When a woman reaches menopause

This Research Project is based on Menopause, the symptoms, effects, lifestyle alterations and Hormone replacing therapy. The inquiry, When a adult female reaches menopause do you believe that she should undergo hormone replacing therapy? will be answered by utilizing information gathered from research every bit good as completed studies on adult females of assorted ages, some holding experienced climacteric and others fixing for climacteric. The intent of this research undertaking is to educate adult females who are about to see or are already sing climacteric and it is to move like a guideline for adult females. This undertaking offers sufficient information which is easy to understand, yet includes all the possible symptoms and medical alterations in a adult female s organic structure during climacteric.

Explanation of Menopause

Menopause represents the terminal of menses. While technically it refers to the concluding period, it is non an disconnected event, but a gradual procedure. Menopause is non a disease that needs to be cured, but a natural life-stage passage. However, adult females have to do of import determinations about “ intervention ” including the usage of endocrine replacing therapy ( HRT ) . 1

Menopause is diagnosed when a adult female has gone through 12 back-to-back months without menses. It marks the last twenty-four hours of a adult female s fertile old ages and is normally known as the “ alteration of life ” as it besides indicates other alterations that may get down to the organic structure and head. These alterations are brought on as a consequence of the organic structure bring forthing fewer sums of the endocrines, oestrogen and Lipo-Lutin. Menopause normally occurs in adult females between the ages of 45 and 55, with the mean age being 51 ; nevertheless the menopausal period differs for single adult female. Menopause is a natural procedure in a adult female ‘s life, with a proper diet, nutritionary addendums, and exercising, most of the unpleasant side effects of climacteric can be reduced, if non wholly eradicated.

Causes and Symptoms of climacteric

A miss reaches puberty around the age of 9-13 old ages old. Each month her organic structure prepares for a gestation and releases one of the many eggs that are stored in her ovaries. The liner of the uterus ( uterus ) thickens in readying of having a fertilized egg. If the egg is non fertilized, Lipo-Lutin degrees bead and the liner sheds and bleeds, ensuing in a monthly period.

Age is the chief cause of menopause.2By the clip a adult female reaches her late 30s or 40s, her ovaries begin to slowly close down, bring forthing less oestrogen and Lipo-Lutin and let go ofing eggs less frequently. The gradual diminution of oestrogen causes a assortment of alterations in the adult female s organic structure. It has been said that the deficiency of oestrogen can do a adult female more susceptible to osteoporosis as they become calcium deficient doing the denseness of the castanetss to go more delicate.

As the degrees of endocrines fluctuate, the adult female s catamenial rhythm begins to alter. Every adult female s catamenial rhythm differs ; some adult females may hold longer periods with heavy flow followed by shorter rhythms and barely any hemorrhage. Others may get down to lose periods wholly. During this clip, a adult female s opportunity of acquiring pregnant lessenings.

A adult female can normally state when she is nearing menopause as her monthly periods start altering. The medical footings used to depict this clip are “ perimenopause ” and the “ climacteric passage. “ 3

There is no definite account for what climacteric is like for every adult female, as it differs for each person. Some adult females reach climacteric with small or no problem where as others experience terrible symptoms which have drastic impacts on their lives. Menopause can get down all of a sudden as a consequence of surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation.4

The most common symptom of climacteric is a alteration in the catamenial rhythm, but there are a assortment of other symptoms, including:

* hot flowers

* dark workout suits

* insomnia

* temper swings/irritability

* chest tenderness

* memory or concentration jobs

* vaginal waterlessness

* heavy hemorrhage

* itchy, crawly tegument

* extreme weariness

* depression

* hair alterations

* concerns

* bosom palpitations

* sexual neutrality

* urinary alterations

* weight addition

Womans frequently confuse the term perimenopause with climacteric. 5

Perimenopause is the period of clip taking up to menopause and it can last between 1 and 14 old ages. Womans may see symptoms from the list above during this clip.

Menopause is the last twenty-four hours of your last period of all time. Once you are in climacteric, you ll be in it for the remainder of your life.

Hormone Replacement Therapy ( HRT )

Explanation of HRT

Hormone replacing therapy ( HRT ) is a good known medical intervention used to cut down the strength and uncomfortableness of the symptoms of climacteric. A batch of adult females have found that utilizing HRT drastically decreases the badness of climacteric symptoms, leting them to populate a comfy life one time once more.

HRT involves replacing the endocrines which a adult female s organic structure stops bring forthing during climacteric, viz. oestrogen and Lipo-Lutin, to their normal range.6 It is the decreased sum of these endocrines which seem to do the symptoms associated with climacteric.

Types of Hormone Replacement Therapy

Hormone replacing therapy can be used in a assortment of combinations to accommodate the single demands, symptoms and wellness concerns of a adult female.

Oestrogen and Progesterone: The most common type of HRT. It is designed peculiarly for adult females who have a womb, eg: have non had a hysterectomy. During this therapy, oestrogen is given on a regular basis, while Lipo-Lutin is added in on an extra footing. The oestrogen used in the therapy is Premarin, as it is made from the piss of pregnant Equus caballuss ( PRegnant MAre ‘s urine ) . Progesterone is unnaturally created and is called progestogen. A combination of the two endocrines is given in order to forestall the giantism of the uterine liner every bit good as prevent any annoyance of the liner, which could take to endometrial malignant neoplastic disease.

Oestrogen Merely: Oestrogen therapy entirely is normally given to adult females who have had a hysterectomy and miss a womb. Due to the deficiency of womb, the demand for Lipo-Lutin is minimum.

It is advisable for a adult female who thinks she may be sing perimenopause, climacteric, or any similar symptoms to confer with a physician before perpetrating to any type of HRT.

Advantages of HRT

The effects of HRT are extended and it is said to be an first-class intervention for cut downing the symptoms of climacteric. HRT can besides significantly cut down the sum and strength of the hot flowers and dark workout suits that a adult female may see. The oestrogen in HRT can help reviewing a adult female s tegument, better her sleeping forms and let her comfort with few symptoms during climacteric.

An extra benefit of endocrine replacing therapy is the decrease of a adult female s hazard of developing osteoporosis. Plant oestrogen is first-class for constructing bone mass in a adult female s organic structure, doing her castanetss stronger. Some surveies have even shown that within five old ages, HRT can cut down the happening of bone breaks by up to 80 % , as the castanetss are stronger and less brittle.

Disadvantages of Hormone Replacement Therapy

Whilst some research surveies have shown HRT in a positive visible radiation, there are some factors which show that HRT may in fact be more unsafe than it is good. HRT is prescribed to assist forestall unwellnesss associated with menopausal adult females, including bosom disease, chest malignant neoplastic disease, and dementedness. A long-run survey by the Women ‘s Health Initiative showed that HRT might really increase a adult female ‘s hazard of many of these diseases. Since these finds, HRT has been cast in a negative visible radiation in many states.

Oestrogen is known to excite cell division, and it seems to increase the hazard of chest malignant neoplastic disease by up to 9 % . HRT besides appears to increase the hazard of bosom disease by 24 % . Womans who take HRT to cut down their hazard of Alzheimer ‘s disease may really increase the hazard by a little per centum. In order to forestall increasing the hazard of certain diseases during climacteric, it is suggested that adult females use HRT for no more than five old ages.

There are rather a figure of side effects every bit good as hazards related to HRT. It is really hard to construe the grade to which the existent therapy is connected to most of the side effects and hazards due to the deficiency of long-run clinical tests comparing the different types of HRT.

Possible side effects and hazards:

* Increased hazard of endometrial malignant neoplastic disease ( adult females who have a womb )

* Increased hazard of chest malignant neoplastic disease after 4 or more old ages of HRT.

* Increased hazard of ovarian malignant neoplastic disease.

* Slightly increased hazard of blood coagulums and gall bladder diseases, associated with the consumption of oestrogen

* Slightly increased hazard of bosom onslaught or shot, both in adult females with cardiovascular disease and in healthy adult females.

* Nausea

* Bloating and fluid retention.7

Suitable campaigners for HRT

HRT can be prescribed by gynecologists, physicians and GP s. A adult female s medical history and a organic structure scrutiny will bespeak if she is suited for HRT and find whether it is right for her. It is advisable for all adult females who are sing holding HRT to confer with their physician before doing any fixed decisions.8

Womans must non hold HRT if they are:

* Corpulent

* A tobacco user

* A heavy drinker

* Prone to megrims with aura

Womans are advised non to utilize HRT, and instead choose for a natural redress of kinds if they:

* Have malignant neoplastic disease in their household background

* Have had malignant neoplastic disease antecedently

* Have high blood force per unit area

* Are at hazard of a shot

Options to HRT

There are many traditional or natural redresss believed to hold the same effects as HRT, merely they are said to be better for the organic structure in footings of side effects.

Some options include:

* Herbs, Vitamins and Minerals

* Soy and Phytoestrogens

* Homeopathy

* Aromatherapy

* Healthy life style

Many adult females choose non to utilize HRT, or to utilize it for a limited sum of clip. eg: 6 months to 2 old ages to cut down the strength of hot flowers. If a adult female does non desire to, or can non hold HRT, there are ample addendums including herbs, vitamins, minerals and homeopathic redresss which some adult females find helpful. Changes in a adult female s life style, diet, and exercising modus operandi are besides good.

Herbs, Vitamins and Minerals

For adult females who want neither natural nor unreal endocrine replacings, one attack is herbs. When used sagely, herbs have minimal, if any, side effects of drugs. Using redresss which aid the menopausal procedure instead than try to halt it, herbs aid adult females maintain in touch with the natural procedure of climacteric. All nutrients have the potency for doing hurt in some people ; herbs are precisely the same and should be used with attention and in right proportions as to what a physician has prescribed.

Botanic names of illustrations of herbs used

Soy merchandises seem to assist some adult females as they are high in phytoestrogens ( works compounds with oestrogen-like activity ) and can alleviate some menopausal symptoms. However, the grounds sing soy is inconsistent. Clinical surveies have shown that soy has small oestrogenic activity in the encephalon and, hence, does non assist much with hot flowers and dark workout suits. In chest tissue, soy may excite the growing of chest cells and therefore soy is non advisable for chest malignant neoplastic disease patients. Although phytoestrogens have some oestrogenic activity and may hold some of the effects of HRT, their long-run safety is non clear and has non been sufficiently studied.


Homeopathic medical specialties act in the same manner as the human system ‘s defense mechanism reactions. They stimulate the natural defense mechanisms of the organic structure in order to do them more efficient, therefore working in concurrence with the organic structure instead than against it. It is non the measure of homeopathic medical specialty that counts, but its presence that determines the sum of activity able to take topographic point. There are homeopathic redresss for symptoms associated with climacteric such as PMS ( Post Menstrual Syndrome ) , hot flowers, irregular hemorrhage, confusion, weariness, megrims, depression and restlessness.


Aromatherapy is the utilizing of works indispensable oils in the intervention of head, organic structure and spirit. It is the usage of indispensable oils through massage, aromatic baths or inspiration. It can hold slight, but efficient effects on the head and organic structure. When decently used, they are really safe, but some oils have safety safeguards which people utilizing them should be cognizant of. Small sums of oil can construct up to a toxic degree in the organic structure over clip, and some oils are really toxicant and must be avoided under certain conditions such as gestation. Working with a qualified practician is recommended when it comes to aromatherapy.

Aromatherapy offers multiple natural options to hormone replacing therapy, to excite oestrogen production, modulate endocrines and manage symptoms such as irregular menses, hot flowers and depression.

Healthy life style

Exercise and good nutrition aid forestall bosom disease and osteoporosis, and the pickings of vitamins, minerals and hint elements are even more of import at this phase of life. Calcium addendums are advisable to protect a adult female against osteoporosis, as they aid in the strengthening of the bones.9

Some suggestions on how to remain healthy and active through climacteric are:

* Eat healthy nutrients. A diet which is low in fat, rich in fruits and veggies, and supply sufficient Ca and vitamin D. Multivitamins and Ca addendums are helpful.

* Regular exercising. At least 20 proceedingss of exercising 3 yearss a hebdomad.

* No smoke.

* Limited intoxicant ingestion.

Prevalence of HRT in first and 3rd universe states

It is to be expected that people populating in first universe states have more cognition about HRT than people populating in 3rd universe states. Peoples in first universe states are by and large more educated on what Hormone Replacement Therapy is, and are able to afford the intervention. Womans in 3rd universe states may hold heard about the therapy, nevertheless may non hold the fiscal assistance to hold the intervention, go forthing them merely the surrogate options.

There are at least 20 million adult females populating in developed states who are estimated to be presently utilizing hormone replacing therapy ( HRT ) .10


I decided to study adult females within rather an extended age group, between 40 and 75. As a consequence I received 10 studies back from adult females of which 8 are soon traveling through and 2 have been through climacteric. The information gathered from the studies reflects on the undermentioned consequences which will subsequently be linked and compared to the researched information.

Analysis & A ; Evaluation of study consequences

Symptoms experienced:


From the consequences of symptoms, it is clear to see that temper swings ; depression ; weight addition ; hot flowers and achy sore articulations are really common symptoms of climacteric as they occurred in more than half of the studies. Womans who are fixing to travel through climacteric should take note of the symptoms that they are sing and confer with their physician.

The information from the tabular array is diagrammatically presented below:

Hormone Replacement Therapy:

All the adult females who were surveyed were flush South Africans. Although every adult female may non hold used HRT, they all knew about it, which proves that HRT is a widely known intervention for get bying with climacteric symptoms. 29 % of the adult females who I surveyed had used HRT where as the other 71 % had non. There were two adult females traveling through climacteric presently, who were non on HRT for assorted grounds.

Physiological effects of HRT

Positive effects of HRT on the human physiology

Harmonizing to the completed studies, some of the positive effects are:


* No dark workout suits

* Reduced anxiousness

* Better kiping forms

* Reduced hot flowers

* Decreased weariness during the twenty-four hours

* Becoming a calmer individual, non fickle

* Good tegument

* Lighter periods

* Reduced depression

Negative effects of HRT on the human physiology

Harmonizing to the completed studies, some of the negative effects are:

* Breast tenderness

* Weight addition

Concerns about HRT:


* Said to increase opportunities of acquiring malignant neoplastic disease. ( chiefly breast malignant neoplastic disease )

* Has to be monitored right to diminish the hazards.

* Many side effects and long term hazards which merely present themselves after halting it.

* Some surveies have indicated negative consequences and effects of HRT

* Increase the hazard of bosom onslaughts and shots.

Options to HRT:


* Progesterone pick

* Wild yam tablets

* Evening primrose oil capsules

* Ladyvite mature

Link between research and studies

Harmonizing to the research, Menopause is a clip in a adult female s life which is inevitable. Some adult females conflict awfully where as others are able to travel through it with few symptoms. There is a huge age spread where climacteric may get down, in some adult females it can be every bit early as 35, or every bit late as 60, it all depends on the single adult female.

Hormone Replacement Therapy ( HRT ) involves seting back those endocrines that the female s sex variety meats stop bring forthing during climacteric. It uses normal sums of endocrine addendums to return endocrine degrees to the normal scopes. Many adult females have heard of what HRT is, but some are unsure on the inside informations of what HRT entails.

It is of import for adult females to understand to the full what their organic structure is traveling through during climacteric, and if they need intervention to assist lessen the symptoms. Womans are advised to research all their options and merely settle on one peculiar one once they are 100 % satisfied with the footings and conditions of the therapy, whether it is HRT or an alternate intervention.


When a adult female reaches menopause do you believe that she should undergo hormone replacing therapy?

I believe that one time a adult female reaches menopause, if the demand arises for intervention to alleviate symptoms, endocrine replacing therapy should be advised. However, if she is non suited for HRT a figure of surrogate options should be offered and tested to happen which intervention works with her organic structure, non against it.

There are a batch of options available presents for adult females sing menopausal symptoms. Womans have the pick of a intervention if needed, nevertheless a audience with their physician foremost for the best advice on which intervention will work the best for them is advisable. The intervention must work with their organic structures, non against them, and the chief intent of HRT is to reconstruct the degrees of endocrines in the adult female s organic structure.

HRT was invented to assist adult females get by better with the symptoms of climacteric every bit good as supply them comfort during with climacteric. There are hazards and side effects of HRT, nevertheless non every adult female is susceptible to these. Every intervention, no affair what it is for, has some kind of hazard ; therefore I believe that adult females should undergo HRT before they judge the side effects and hazards of it.

Menopause is a milepost in a adult female s life. It marks the terminal of her child bearing old ages and the beginning of a new, mature stage. Menopause should be something every adult female can get by with without the fuss of dark workout suits or hot flowers. Hormone replacing therapy is a manner in which adult females can bask life without holding to emphasize about the awful symptoms of climacteric impacting them.

Therefore I believe that adult females should undergo hormone replacing therapy if they have the option of it, every bit good as being able to afford it. HRT can assist adult females through the unsmooth times of climacteric every bit good as maintain a healthy head, organic structure and psyche.