What is an LL.M?
An abbreviation for the LatinLegum Magisterthe Master of Laws is a postgraduate jurisprudence grade giving a pupil the chance to come on their cognition in a specific country of jurisprudence beyond the degree reached in their undergraduate surveies. Most establishments offering a Maestro of Laws plan require pupils to hold antecedently obtained an undergraduate jurisprudence grade. In the UK and most Common Law legal powers this is the LL.B ( Bachelor of Laws ) grade, whilst in the US it is the Juris Doctor ( JD ) making. Some administrations will let entry on to their LL.M classs if the applier has achieved a non-legal undergraduate making, but can demo that they have considerable practical cognition of the country to be studied together with a general cognition of the legal system and its pattern.
The acquisition of a Maestro of Laws does non let the holder to pattern as either canvasser or barrister in the United Kingdom. Since the bulk of jurisprudence pupils intend to come in the legal profession, it could be suggested that the LL.M is of small or limited relevancy as portion of the legal instruction of the practician. The really specific nature of most LL.M plans nevertheless, means that set abouting the making will show to prospective employers non merely the academic ability of the campaigner, but besides their greater cognition of single or specialized countries of jurisprudence. In add-on a great figure of LL.M classs are suited for presently practising attorneies enabling them to spread out and concentrate their cognition and therefore their employability. With the turning importance of European Union Law and statute law on the UK legal system there are a turning figure of European Law LL.M plans available. The College of Law, for illustration, has late introduced a Maestro of Laws in international legal pattern in concurrence with the International Bar Association and several taking international houses which is designed to give pupils the cognition required for cross boundary line corporate traffics.
The LL.M is an internationally recognized making, in contrast to most undergraduate jurisprudence makings and can therefore, in certain fortunes be used as a stepping rock to pattern in a state where the student’s undergraduate making is non recognised. In the US, for illustration, it is possible that an LL.M obtained from a jurisprudence school recognised by the American Bar Association can let the holder to set about the saloon scrutiny without the demand to obtain the JD. It should be noted nevertheless that this is State specific and prospective pupils should look into the demands of the State in which they wish to pattern.
Since the countries of jurisprudence covered by each LL.M can be widely different, so the survey attack taken by each establishment can besides differ. In the chief LL.M pupils are required to set about a figure of faculties, each assessed separately by the class coachs and a concluding thesis which is likely to be research based and will be worked towards throughout the full class. The weight of each of these constituents will change between classs and to a certain extent will be dependent on the capable countries covered.
Whilst the general focal point of this description of the LL.M has been to show its worth to the prospective or current legal practician, it should non be forgotten that the LL.M is an academic making and is of great importance to the pupil who has a entirely academic involvement in the jurisprudence and who has little or no purpose of of all time come ining into the legal profession. The LL.M is a measure closer towards PhD and the apprehension and development of jurisprudence from a position outside the restrictions imposed by pattern.
Which Law School is Right for Me?
The inquiry of which Law School is the most appropriate for each prospective pupil provides an tremendous figure of variables to see. The primary consideration for the pupil must be to make up one’s mind what they wish to accomplish from the completion of the LL.M. Each LL.M class or plan is frequently highly specialised and the campaigner must be certain that the class considered is right for them. The pupil must besides see the quality of the making that will be achieved and how this may impact the student’s calling chances. The manner of survey and clip taken to analyze must besides be considered together with the inevitable cost load to the pupil.
It would be impossible to name here all of the possible options for the pupil meaning to set about an LL.M in relation to the pick of class available. In all but a really few instances the ground for set abouting any sort of graduate student survey is to foster the calling chances of the pupil. To this terminal the prospective LL.M pupil must see really carefully what their needed result is to be in the long term. For most this will be to do their CV base out amongst a figure of other appliers for any occupation, whether as a qualified practician or as a freshly qualified attorney seeking a UK preparation contract or its international equivalent. Clearly most pupils by this clip in their instruction will hold a clear thought of how they want their calling to advancement and in which country of jurisprudence they wish to specialize. There are a figure of ways to detect which classs are available, but a general cyberspace hunt will supply a list of universities in the UK offering the LL.M together with the specialization for each class. The scopeistremendous so it seems really likely that the bulk of pupils will be able to happen a class that meets their demands. It is of class non necessary for prospective pupils to restrict their considerations to classs available at UK universities. Several legal powers consider the LL.M as a method of re-training for pattern in a new state and under a different legal system. A pupil wishing to pattern abroad should see this option, instead than set abouting a complete new class of survey in a different state.
Whilst the quality of the making received is far less important in the UK than in other states ; the quality of universities being far less diverse, it would be advisable for a pupil to see any associations that might be between universities and jurisprudence houses which might heighten their employment possibilities. If the pupil intends to analyze abroad it is critical that they consider how the quality of the establishment and their prospective making is viewed in the state in which they intend to analyze.
The manner of survey for an LL.M can change a great trade. Courses are offered which are full clip and will be completed within a twelvemonth, but classs are besides offered which can take every bit long as is required to finish, within certain guidelines for each faculty completed. By and large this sort of class takes the signifier of a portion clip or distance acquisition class made up of several assessed faculties and a concluding thesis. The pupil will finish a figure of faculties each within a specific clip frame, but will be given a big sum of freedom over when and how many faculties to set about. There are many classs which fall between these two extremes and most pupils should be able to happen a class which is right for them.
The bulk of pupils will necessitate to see the issue of funding for their LL.M and, with this in head they must make up one’s mind whether a full or portion clip class, which would let them to work to cover costs, would be most appropriate. Clearly the longer the clip taken to finish the class the more dispersed out and manageable the costs will be, but this must nevertheless be balanced against the employment advantages gained from obtaining the LL.M.
Funding Your LL.M
The cost of finishing an LL.M will be a major consideration for most prospective pupils. Monetary values do vary within the establishments offering an LL.M, but in general a pupil should anticipate to pass in the part of ?10,000 in class fees to finish their LL.M in the UK and upwards of $ 30,000 in the US. In add-on to these fees the pupil must take in to consideration life disbursals, which will change tremendously from university to university.
For some pupils these costs can be met from personal or household financess. The diverse nature of LL.M classs available allows pupils to distribute the cost of their survey over a period of clip and to cover these costs by working. The length of clip taken to finish the class must be offset against the possible salary additions available on completion, but in world most pupils will set about to finish the LL.M in the shortest possible, financially feasible clip frame.
Many pupils nevertheless will non hold the chance to work in order to fund their surveies and must seek some alternate signifier of support in order to run into the costs of finishing an LL.M. The first port of call for these pupils should be the university itself. Many establishments offer funding to pupils in the signifier of grants or scholarships. Whilst support for the LL.M is non as readily available as for PhD it can be obtained, but the handiness of support is limited and highly competitory. Clearly pupils must equilibrate its handiness against their demands for the LL.M class they wish to set about and should see other support options in penchant to set abouting a class which will non run into at that place specific demands.
In the UK pupils may be entitled to a pupil grant or loan, dependent upon household income, from the Student Loans Company. This sum would cover some of the cost of the class fees, which in 2007/2008 was ?3,070 or the sum charged for the tuition fees whichever is less. It can be seen that this sum entirely will non cover the cost of set abouting an LL.M and the pupil will be required to run into the deficit elsewhere. If taken out these loans will be capable to involvement payments and must be repaid in concurrence with the prescribed refund agenda supplying the pupils has completed higher instruction and is gaining more than ?15,000 per twelvemonth. The pupil loans company will non supply care support, for life disbursals, for postgraduate pupils.
UK pupils may besides be eligible for a Career Development Loan supplying they meet certain standards and are non eligible for any other sort of support such as a Student Loan. These loans are available up to ?8,000 and can be taken out with either Barclays, the Co-operative Bank or the Royal Bank of Scotland. Interest is collectible and payments can be made up to five old ages after finishing the class.
A figure of UK Bankss offer loans to pupils for graduate student survey with discriminatory involvement rates and guaranteed credence provided undergraduate survey has been late completed. It is in the best involvements of the pupil to compare these services for themselves and to see whether the debt incurred is good in comparing to any addition in employment chances following completion of their LL.M.
In world for most pupils it will be necessary to see and utilize a figure of the above options in order to finish and fund the LL.M. It will besides be a consideration whether the advantages of taking a shorter clip to finish the LL.M are outweighed by the support considerations in comparing to a longer survey clip and a greater chance to fund the class through work.
Writing a Dissertation at LL.M degree
For many pupils the completion of their LL.M thesis may good be the first juncture that they have been faced with composing such a drawn-out, independently researched piece. It can be a dashing chance but with careful planning and consideration pupils should be able to concentrate and accommodate their thoughts and statements in order to obtain a high criterion of work.
What is a Dissertation?
For the bulk of LL.M courses a thesis, sometimes known as a thesis or concluding assignment will be a papers of 10,000 words or above which presents the findings of research into a specific country of the jurisprudence studied during the class. Given that many LL.M classs or plans are in themselves extremely specialised the capable affair of the thesis will be of a really specific nature so and the pupil will be required to show a extremely in deepness cognition of this country of jurisprudence, together with exposing an apprehension of how the country covered relates to other countries of the jurisprudence and pattern.
Planing the Dissertation
It may look obvious to province, but the pupil will cognize that they must finish the thesis in order to finish the LL.M when their class begins. It may non nevertheless be a consideration at the beginning of what may be a drawn-out procedure, that there is value in sing what the capable affair might be early on in the class. It would be unadvisable to make a concluding determination at this phase but this grade of readying will give the pupil the chance to explicate and polish their statements over clip. It will besides give them the opportunity to see a figure of possible countries of research and to hopefully take precisely the right 1 for them. Once a determination has been made in relation to the capable affair of the LL.M thesis, it will be really hard and clip devouring for the pupil to alter their head. It is of import that the right determination is made in the first topographic point.
Once the pupil has a clear thought of their intended capable affair they should discourse this with their coach who will offer advice on whether the capable affair is appropriate for the academic demands of the class. In world it is likely that the student’s pick will hold been made in audience with their coach over a period of clip and this should ensue in the concluding determination being a comparatively easy one to make. Some LL.M classs require a written lineation to be presented prior to credence of a thesis subject.
Get downing Work
Again, another obvious statement, but the pupil must be after a realistic timeframe for finishing their work. There will be a important degree of readying work and research required before pen can be put to paper and this must get down early plenty to give clip for the composing stage to be completed with comfort.
The research carried out should be clearly structured and documented. The pupil will hold an thought of any decisions they believe they will make and it is reasonable to categorize research into countries that support this decision and those which contradict it. It is besides of import that the pupil remains unfastened minded at this point – their original belief might hold been incorrect and the decision might non be the one they expected. The degree of item and deepness of cognition required for an LL.M thesis is high. The pupil should guarantee that they have a complete and accurate cognition of the country of jurisprudence covered and an apprehension of how this may impact other countries of the jurisprudence, even those outside the remit of their class. Any research nevertheless, carried out in relation to the effects on other countries of the must be considered within the context of the thesis rubric.
Once all of the preliminary research is completed the pupil can get down to compose. Before making this nevertheless it is advisable, if the pupils has non already done so, to read thesiss completed by old pupils. This will give an thought of the construction and presentation of the work and will enable the pupil draw decisions as what is good and bad about these plants.
Get downing to Write
By this phase the pupil will hold a strong thought of the overall construction of their thesis, but if they have non already done so, a program must be made at this point. The pupil should make up one’s mind on headers and sub-headings, the overall form of the work and how they intend to show their statements before they begin. None of this is set in rock but an apprehension of construction of the thesis will do the authorship procedure that much easier.
It is of import to gain that it is improbable that the composing procedure will be wholly additive. It may be necessary to leap around a small whilst authorship and it is advisable for the pupil to concentrate on the countries they feel most confident about first. This will enable the pupil to compose more fluently and may assist to clear up the countries where the pupil is less confident about their attack. Of class once the authorship procedure has begun new countries of research may be brought to visible radiation and the pupil should stay flexible, within the context of their rubric, and be able to include new points of position should any go evident.
It is extremely improbable that any student’s thesis will be completed in the first bill of exchange and there should be clip to see the work before it is submitted. At this phase this should merely affect polish of thoughts or linguistic communication. If the planning and composing phases have been carried out comprehensively there should be no demand for a re-write of big subdivisions of the work.
Each university will hold a different set of regulations associating to commendation and referencing. Supplying all research has been carefully documented this concluding phase of finishing the thesis will non be every bit burdensome as it might look. Most universities require footers and appendices to be included in the word count with bibliographies being excluded.
Writing an Essay at LL.M Level
A big figure of LL.M classs require pupils to finish a figure of faculties throughout the class, which relate to capable affair of the LL.M as a whole. The pupil will be required to go through a specific figure of these faculties in add-on to finishing a thesis in order to graduate. It is normal for these faculties to be assessed by necessitating the pupil to finish essay type replies throughout the class period.
The huge bulk of pupils set abouting an LL.M will hold a great trade of comparatively recent experience in composing essays at undergraduate degree. Whilst the general authorship procedure may be similar, the deepness required is much greater at Masters degree than may antecedently hold been necessary.
At undergraduate degree, in the chief, the capable affair required for the completion of an essay will hold been taught, or at the really least the pupil will hold been pointed steadfastly in the way of any research they are required to set about. In most LL.M classs there is necessarily an sum of learning which takes topographic point, but in general the classs require a big sum of independent thought and research from the pupil. Additionally undergraduate jurisprudence pupils, who are frequently given practical jobs to decide in essays, will be used to there being a right reply to many of the inquiries asked. Whilst there may be, in some LL.M classs, an sum of practical job type essay inquiries to finish, it is likely that the pupil will be required to show a much more in deepness reply to a inquiry which raises issues associating to their country of survey and which will necessitate them to pull a decision from their research instead than merely acquire the reply right.
Where to Get down
The attack taken for the completion of an LL.M essay reply differs little at the beginning to that taken when set abouting an undergraduate essay. The pupil must first make up one’s mind what the essay rubric is inquiring them to make. Whether it is to work out a job, show an in deepness cognition of pattern or process or discourse a state of affairs associating to a specific point of jurisprudence it is critical that the reply given is precisely the 1 required.
LL.M pupils will be required to show non merely a extremely in deepness cognition of the country of jurisprudence they are analyzing, together with its influence on other countries ; they will besides be required to show an ability to transport out independent research and demo a degree of independent thought in their replies.
When finishing an LL.M essay inquiry, pupils will be required to set about a important degree of research in order to happen the information they require for their work. They must be able to demo that they have the ability to happen relevant paperss and that they are able to read these within the context of the essay rubric. They should besides be able to show that they are capable of critically analyzing the work of others together with Statute and instance jurisprudence. They must non merely demo an in deepness cognition of their field they must besides expose a wider apprehension of the deductions of their forte on other facets of the jurisprudence.
The pupil should pull up a list of countries that must be considered in order to finish the essay and should methodically research each in bend in order to get down to pull possible decisions in relation to the essay rubric. It is critical that any research carried out is documented to the full at this phase so as to salvage clip when finishing citing the work. Merely when all relevant research has been undertaken should the pupil Begin to compose the essay. The pupil should besides be cognizant that it might be necessary to set about farther research once they begin to compose since farther countries of consideration may come to visible radiation.
Get downing to Write
Before seting pen to paper, it is advisable to do a program of the general construction of the essay, including any headers or sub-headings that might be required. Not merely will this aid simplify the authorship procedure, but it will besides assist to clear up the student’s statements or replies in relation to the essay rubric. This of class is true to all essays at all academic degrees.
Due to the deepness of cognition and the degree of item required for an LL.M reply, the pupil should be prepared to finish a figure of bill of exchange replies prior to subjecting their work. It is of import for the pupil to stay flexible throughout this procedure and they should be ready to set about farther research at any point should it go necessary. Throughout the authorship period the pupil must invariably guarantee that their reply is focussed on the essay rubric and that they are, in fact, still replying the inquiry. Whilst the reply must be thorough it must besides be concise.
Once the pupil is happy with the content of their essay answer they must guarantee that it is comprehensively referenced. Each university will hold their ain demands for the manner and type of citing they allow, but all will desire to guarantee that the pupil understands the importance of truth of the referencing process. Once once more, LL.M pupils will hold a good cognition of citing from their undergraduate surveies, but with the greater degree of research required for an essay for an LL.M class at that place will necessarily be a greater degree of citing. The importance of thoroughly documenting research becomes evident at this phase.
As a consequence of the really diverse nature of LL.M classs it is impossible to give a unequivocal usher as to what will be required when set abouting the authorship of an essay for the LL.M. In general pupils can anticipate their essay rubrics to resemble, in some respects, those they will hold completed at undergraduate degree but the degree of deepness of cognition and research required will be well higher than at an undergraduate degree.