What Is A Fingerprint Information Technology Essay

The human organic structure has the privilege of holding characteristics that are alone and sole to each person. This exclusivity and alone feature has led to the field of biometries and its application in guaranting security in assorted Fieldss. Biometrics has gained popularity and has proved itself to be a dependable manner of guaranting privateness, keeping security and identifying persons. It has broad credence throughout the Earth and now is being used at topographic points like airdromes, infirmaries, schools, colleges, corporate offices etc.

Biometricss is the really survey of placing a individual by his/her physical traits that are built-in and alone to merely the individual concerned. Biometric measuring and assessment include fingerprint confirmation, iris acknowledgment, palm geometry, face acknowledgment etc. The above mentioned techniques work with different degrees of functionality and truth.

Accuracy and dependability are the two most of import parametric quantities when it comes to biometric applications. Fingerprint confirmation is one of the oldest known biometric techniques known but still is the most widely used because of its simpleness and good degrees of truth. It ‘s a good known fact that every human being is born with a different form on the fingers and this characteristic is exploited to place and distinguish between two different individuals.

The application in an educational institute is deserving observing because of the benefits it brings along with it. The fingerprint acknowledgment and confirmation technique can easy replace an attending sheet and salvage clip wasted on naming out axial rotation Numberss in the category. A fingerprint observing device demands to be placed in each schoolroom and pupils would be made to swipe their finger over the detector so as to tag their presence in the category. The database would incorporate all the fingerprints beforehand. So, the minute a finger would be swiped, a cheque would be carried out with the bing database and the corresponding pupil would acquire a present grade on his attending record maintained in a waiter.

The transportation of the fingerprint from the device to the waiter can be carried out wirelessly utilizing certain radio arrangers which can together organize a radio web in a short scope and transport out the confirmation procedure. The communicating channel needs to be secured and should be kept free from intervention every bit far as possible. For farther security of the full system and to observe illegal activities, a security camera can be installed to maintain path of the registrations made in the schoolroom.


What is a fingerprint?

A fingerprint, as the name suggests is the print or the feeling made by our finger because of the forms formed on the tegument of our thenars and fingers since birth. With age, these Markss get outstanding but the form and the constructions present in those all right lines do non undergo any alteration. For their permanency and alone nature, they have been used since long in condemnable and forensic instances.

Shown below, is a fingerprint form obtained from an optical detector. The figure shows swoon and dark lines emerging from a peculiar point and gyrating around it all over the finger.

Figure 2.1 A fingerprint image acquired by an optical detector

Every fingerprint consists of ridges and furrows. These ridges and furrows are known to demo good similarities but when it comes to placing a individual or separating between two different prints, these do non turn out efficient plenty. Research has show that fingerprints are non distinguished by ridges and furrows but by Minutia. Minutia refers to some abnormalcies in a ridge, which shall be discussed in item in the undermentioned pages.

As already mentioned, Minutia are unnatural points in a ridge. There can be assorted such Minutia but the two most of import and utile minutia types are Termination and Bifurcation. Termination refers to the disconnected stoping of a ridge, as shown in fig.2.2.1. Bifurcation on the other manus refers to the point on the ridge where ramification occurs, as shown in fig.2.2.2

Figure 2.2.1 Termination minutia

Figure 2.2.2 Bifurcation minutia ( Furrow, besides known as vale )

The fingerprint is captured with the aid of detectors. They could be optical detectors, supersonic detectors or capacitance detectors. These detectors capture the image of the finger, which is by and large referred to as a unrecorded scan.

Fingerprint Recognition

Once the fingerprint is captured, the following measure is the acknowledgment process. The acknowledgment process can be loosely sub grouped into

Fingerprint designation

Fingerprint confirmation

Fingerprint designation refers to stipulating one ‘s individuality based on his fingerprints. The fingerprints are captured without any information about the individuality of the individual. It is so matched across a database incorporating legion fingerprints. The individuality is merely retrieved when a lucifer is found with one bing in the database. So, this is a instance of one-to-n matching where one gaining control is compared to several others. This is widely used for condemnable instances.

Fingerprint confirmation is different from designation in a manner that the individual ‘s individuality is stored along with the fingerprint in a database. On inscribing the fingerprint, the existent clip gaining control will recover back the individuality of the individual. This is nevertheless a one-to-one matching. This is used in offices like passport offices etc. where the individuality of a individual has to be checked with the 1 provided at a old phase.

Irrespective of the process carried out, the fingerprint acknowledgment has to be such that the fingerprint is well- represented and retains its singularity during the procedure. In the undermentioned pages, an attack to fingerprint acknowledgment has been discussed that will cover with the representation of the same.

Approach to fingerprint acknowledgment

The attack that we have concentrated on in acknowledgment of the fingerprints is the minutia based attack. In this attack the ridge bifurcations and expirations are taken into consideration for analysing each fingerprint. The representation is based on these local characteristics.

The scanner system uses extremely complex algorithms to acknowledge and analyse the minutia. The basic thought is to mensurate the comparative part of minutia. Simply, it can be thought of as sing the assorted forms formed by the minutia when heterosexual lines are drawn between them or when the full image is divided into matrix of square sized cells. If two fingerprints have the same set of ridge terminations and bifurcations organizing the same form with the same dimension, there ‘ s a immense likeliness that they are of the same fingerprint.

So, to happen a lucifer the scanner system has to happen a sufficient figure of minutia forms that the two prints have in common, the exact figure being decided by the scanner scheduling.


The fingerprint image is processed through a three measure process. The image undergoes pre-processing, minutia extraction and post-processing. The three phases involve different stairss and processs which need to be discussed in item.


The pre-processing phase makes usage of image sweetening, image binarization and image cleavage.

Image Enhancement

Image sweetening is necessary to do the image clearer for farther operations. Since the fingerprint images acquired from detectors or other media are non assured with perfect quality, enhancement methods, for increasing the contrast between ridges and furrows and for linking the false broken points of ridges due to deficient sum of ink, are really utile for maintain a higher truth to fingerprint acknowledgment.

Two Methods are adopted for image enhancement phase: the first 1 is Histogram Equalization ; the following 1 is Fourier Transform. Histogram Equalization

Histogram equalisation expands the pel value distribution of an image in order to increase perceptional betterment. The pictural description is given below. The fingerprint ab initio has a bimodal type histogram as shown in fig 3.1. After histogram equalisation is carried out, the image occupies all the scope from 0 to 255, heightening the visual image consequence in the procedure.

Figure Fingerprint with original histogram Figure After histogram equalisation

Figure Consequence of Histogram equalisation

Original Image ( left ) Enhanced Image ( Right ) Using Fourier Transform

In this procedure of sweetening the image is divided into little processing blocks ( 32 x 32 pels ) and Fourier transform is performed.

The map is as follows:

For u= 0,1,2, aˆ¦ ,31

v= 0,1,2, aˆ¦.,31

In order to heighten a specific block by its dominant frequences, we multiply the FFT of the block by its magnitude a set of times. Where the magnitude of the original FFT = acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene ( F ( u, V ) ) = |F ( u, V ) | .

Get the enhanced block harmonizing to

A ( 2 ) ,

where F-1 ( F ( u, V ) ) is done by:

A A A ( 3 )

for x = 0, 1, 2, … , 31 and y = 0, 1, 2, … , 31.

The K in expression ( 2 ) is an by experimentation determined invariable, which we choose k=0.45 to cipher. While holding a higher “ K ” improves the visual aspect of the ridges, make fulling up little holes in ridges, holding excessively high a “ K ” can ensue in false connection of ridges. Thus a expiration might go a bifurcation. Figure shows the image after FFT sweetening.

Figure FFT enhanced fingerprint image

Original Image ( left ) Enhanced Image ( Right )

The enhanced image after FFT has the betterments to link some falsely broken points on ridges and to take some specious connexions between ridges. The shown image at the left side of figure is besides processed with histogram equalisation after the FFT transform.

Image binarization

The original image is a 8-bit grayscale image. This procedure transforms the original image into a 1-bit image that assigns value ‘0 ‘ for ridges and value ‘1 ‘ for furrows. After the operation is over, the ridges appear black while the furrows appear white.

The binarization method transforms a pel value to 1 if the value is larger than the average strength value of the current block to which the pel belongs.

The figure clearly depicts the consequence of binarization on a normal grayscale image that has been merely enhanced.

Figure Consequence of binarization

Binarized Image Gray image

Image cleavage

For a fingerprint image, merely a certain part is of import which can supply the needed information and can be utile for farther processing. This part is called the ROI or the part of involvement. In this procedure, the country without effectual ridges and furrows is foremost discarded since it holds merely background information. After flinging those parts, the boundary of the staying country is sketched out to acquire a clearer image that is free from specious minutia.

This procedure of cleavage is carried out in two stairss. The first measure is block way appraisal and the following is ROI extraction by morphological methods. The inside informations of the two stairss are as follows.

Block way appraisal

The block way for each block of the fingerprint image with WxW in size ( W is 16 pels by default ) is estimated. The algorithm is:

Calculation of the gradient values along x-direction ( gx ) and y-direction ( gray ) for each pel of the block utilizing two Sober filters.

Obtaining Least Square Approximation of block way for each block utilizing the undermentioned expression.

tg2? = 2 i?? i?? ( gx*gy ) /i?? i?? ( gx2-gy2 )

Sing the gradient values along x-direction and y-direction as cosine value and sine value severally, the tangent value of the block way is estimated about the same manner as illustrated by the undermentioned expression:

tg2i?± = 2sini?±cosi?± / ( cos2i?± -sin2i?± )

The blocks with undistinguished information are discarded as mentioned above utilizing the undermentioned expression.

E = { 2 i?? i?? ( gx*gy ) + i?? i?? ( gx2-gy2 ) } / W*W*i?? i?? ( gx2+gy2 )

For each block, if its certainty degree E is below a threshold, so the block is regarded as a background block. The way map is shown in the figure that follows.

Figure Consequence of block way appraisal

Direction map ( right ) ROI extraction by morphological methods

For transporting out morphological operations, two operations “ OPEN ” and “ CLOSE ” are defined. The Open operation ( fig ) has capableness to spread out an image and take extremums introduced by background noise while the CLOSE operation ( fig3.1.3.2 ) is effectual in shriveling images so as to extinguish little pits.

Figure CLOSE operation

Original Image country After CLOSE operation

Figure OPEN operation

After OPEN operation ROI + Bound

The edge is the minus of the closed country from the opened country. Then the algorithm throws off those leftmost, rightmost, uppermost and bottommost blocks out of the edge so as to acquire the tightly bounded part merely incorporating the edge and interior country.

Minutia Extraction

The minutia extraction procedure involves ridge thinning followed by minutia marker

Ridge cutting

Ridge Thinning eliminates excess pels of ridges till the ridges are merely one pel broad. It uses an iterative, parallel thinning algorithm. In each scan of the full fingerprint image, the algorithm marks down excess pels in each little image window ( 3×3 ) . Finally all those marked pels are removed after several scans. It uses a one-in-all method to pull out cut ridges from gray-level fingerprint images straight. Their method hints along the ridges holding maximal grey strength value. However, binarization is implicitly enforced since merely pels with maximal grey strength value are remained.

Minutia marker

This follows the ridge thinning procedure. The mechanism behind the minutia taging procedure is described as follows.

For each 3×3 window, if the cardinal pel is 1 and has precisely 3 one-value neighbours, so the cardinal pel is a ridge subdivision ( fig ) . If the cardinal pel is 1 and has merely 1 one-value neighbour, so the cardinal pel is a ridge stoping ( fig )

The figures below explain the procedure pictorially.



















Figure Bifurcation Figure Termination

The mean inter-ridge breadth D is estimated at this phase. The mean inter-ridge breadth refers to the mean distance between two adjacent ridges. The manner to come close the D value is simple. A row of the cut ridge is scanned and the pels with value one rhenium summed up. Then the row length is divided with the summing up above to acquire inter ridge breadth. For more truth, such sort of row scan is performed upon several other rows and column scans are besides conducted. Finally all the inter-ridge breadths are averaged to acquire the D.

Together with the minutia marker, all thinned ridges in the fingerprint image are labeled with a alone ID for farther operation.


The concluding measure is carried out to ticket melody the image by procedures like taking false minutia and consolidative expirations and bifurcations.

False minutia remotion

The preprocessing phase does non wholly mend the fingerprint image. For illustration, false ridge interruptions due to deficient sum of ink and ridge cross-connections due to over inking are non wholly eliminated. Actually all the earlier phases themselves on occasion introduce some artefacts which subsequently lead to specious minutia. These false minutias will significantly impact the truth of fiting if they are merely regarded as echt minutia. So some mechanisms of taking false minutia are indispensable to maintain the fingerprint confirmation system effectual.

False minutia can be of different types as follows

Figure False minutia constructions

M1 is a spike piercing into a vale. In the M2 instance a spike falsely connects two ridges. M3 has two near bifurcations located in the same ridge. The two ridge broken points in the m4 instance have about the same orientation and a short distance. m5 is alike the m4 instance with the exclusion that one portion of the broken ridge is so short that another expiration is generated. m6 extends the m4 instance but with the excess belongings that a 3rd ridge is found in the center of the two parts of the broken ridge. m7 has merely one short ridge found in the threshold window.

The process for remotion of false minutia are as follows:

1. If the distance between one bifurcation and one expiration is less than D and the two minutia are in the same ridge ( m1 instance ) . Remove both of them. Where D is the mean inter-ridge breadth stand foring the mean distance between two analogues adjacent ridges.

2. If the distance between two bifurcations is less than D and they are in the same ridge, take the two bifurcations. ( M2, m3 instances ) .

3. If two expirations are within a distance D and their waies are coinciding with a little angle fluctuation. And they suffice the status that no any other expiration is located between the two expirations. Then the two expirations are regarded as false minutia derived from a broken ridge and are removed. ( Case m4, m5, m6 ) .

4. If two expirations are located in a short ridge with length less than D, take the two expirations ( m7 ) .

Fusion of expirations and bifurcations

Since assorted informations acquisition conditions such as feeling force per unit area can easy alter one type of minutia into the other, most research workers adopt the fusion representation for both expiration and bifurcation. So each minutia is wholly characterized by the undermentioned parametric quantities at last:

1 ) x-coordinate

2 ) y-coordinate

3 ) Orientation.

The orientation computation for a bifurcation needs to be specially considered. All three ridges deducing from the bifurcation point have their ain way, represents the bifurcation orientation utilizing a technique proposed in. The minimal angle among the three anti clockwise orientations is chosen. Both methods cast the other two waies off, so some information is lost.