Water – the essence of life: Exploring the fluid

Water – the kernel of life: Researching the fluid organic structure, H2O as a communicating interface and its deductions in wellness.

Water is the regarded as the dissolver of life, since its molecular construction helps it fade out a diverse scope of polar and ionic substances. The organic structure is about composed of 70 % H2O which helps keep its physiological procedures. Indeed, H2O sustains life with its inherent and curious features. Furthermore, the much debated hypothesis of H2O memory postulates that H2O has memory which proves utile in homoeopathy. Additionally, H2O has less well-known features which are of import in the care of wellness, viz. , its ability to convey quivers of ideas and emotions. Therefore, H2O can be regarded as the kernel of life, a communicating interface and an indispensable tool in the care of wellness.

Abstraction

Table of Contentss

List of Tables and Figures

Glossary

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1. Introduction

1.2 Literature Review

1.3 Aim

Chapter 2: Properties of Water

2.1 Molecular Structure of Water

2.2. Peculiarities of Water

2.3 Types of Water

2.4 Movement of Water

2.5 Molecular Memory of Water

Chapter 3: Water as a Sense Organ

3.1 The Composition of Body Fluids

3.2 Water in the Extracellular Matrix

3.3 Intracellular Fluid

3.4 Transportation of Vibration of Thought and Emotions through Water

Chapter 4: Water in Health

4.1 Regulation of Water in the Body

4.2 Dehydration and Its Effectss

Decision

Bibliography

Table 1: Specific heats and molar heat capacities for assorted substances at 20 C

Table 2: Thaw Points and Heat of Fusion

Table 3: Boiling Points and Heat of Vaporization

Table 4: Water volumes in the hydrosphere

Figure 1: Molecular Structure of Water

Figure 2 Surface Tension

Figure 3 Lotic System

Figure 4 Three zones of a lake and the aquatic communities

Figure 5 Hydrologic rhythm

Figure 6 Motion of Water

Figure 7: Composition of Body Fluids

Figure 8 Negative Feedback Mechanism of Osmoregulation

  1. Capillary Water –rises above the H2O tabular array due to come up tenseness forces.
  2. Gravitational Water – drains through the ( unsaturated subsurface under the influence of gravitative forces.
  3. Hygroscopic Water – held by adhesive forces onto the surface of dirt grains.
  4. Infiltration – the procedure of falling rain or runing snow come ining a dirt or stone across its interface with the ambiance, or H2O from a watercourse come ining its streambed across the stream-streambed interface.
  5. Interflow – sidelong motion of H2O in the unsaturated zone during and instantly after a precipitation event. The H2O traveling as interflow discharges straight into a watercourse, lake, or other mercantile establishment.
  6. Latent heat of fusion- the heat given up by a unit mass of a substance during merger.
  7. Latent heat of vaporisation – the heat required to change over H2O into vapor.
  8. Lentic systems-comprised of standing Waterss such as lakes and pools.
  9. Lotic systems – comprised of fluxing Waterss with unidirectional flow, such as watercourse, Brookss and rivers.
  10. Percolation – decelerate laminal motion of H2O through little gaps within a porous stuff.
  11. Recharge – the procedures involved in the add-on of H2O to the saturated zone, of course by precipitation or overflow, or unnaturally by distributing or injection.
  12. Specific heat of a substance – the sum of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gm of the substance by 1EsC.
  13. Surface Tension- the attractive forces moving between the molecules of the liquid.

1.1. Introduction

Water is considered “the most familiar and abundant liquid on Earth. In solid signifier ( ice ) and liquid signifier it covers about 70 % of the Earth ‘s surface” , ( “ Water, ” 2007 ) .The earth’s hydrosphere is made up of about 1.4 billion square kilometers of H2O, ( Hornberger et al, 1998, p. 243 ) . Furthermore, H2O is considered as “the dissolver of life” , ( Campbell & A ; Reese, 2002, p.45 ) . This astonishing feature of H2O can be attributed to its capacity to fade out a diverse scope of solutes, such as ionic and polar substances, ( Campbell & A ; Reese, 2002, p.45 ) . As such, it is an indispensable constituent of life tissues. In fact, “most of the life tissue of a human being is made up of H2O ; it constitutes about 92 % of blood plasma, approximately 80 % of musculus tissue, approximately 60 % of ruddy blood cells, and over half of most other tissues” , ( “ Water, ” 2007 ) . This thesis will research the features of H2O that contributes to its vitalizing and vital features. First, this thesis will extensively discourse the belongingss of H2O, including its molecular construction, motion and inherently curious features. Furthermore, this thesis will dig on the molecular memory of H2O. Then, it will show H2O as a sense organ by discoursing the composing of organic structure fluids, both in the extracellular and intracellular compartments ; and the water’s alone capacity to reassign quivers of idea and emotion. Finally, this thesis will measure the function of H2O in the publicity of wellness, specifically, by discoursing osmoregulation and the effects of desiccation.

1.2 Literature Review

There is a wealth of information sing the belongingss of H2O, including its motion and distinctive features. Most of this information can be found in books, particularly in chemical science and biological science text editions. Campbell and Reese ( 2002, p. 45 ) provided a instead short treatment on the molecular construction of the H2O molecule. However, they explained reasonably good, the procedure by which the H2O molecule dissolves ionic and polar substances. Kotz and Treichel ( 1996 ) ; Hornberger and others ( 1998 ) , Roebuck ( 2000 ) , Moore and others ( 2005 ) and Burton and co-workers ( 1999 ) , offered a more luxuriant account of the molecular construction of the H2O molecule with attach toing illustrations and accounts of its curious features. With regard to the molecular memory of H2O, many peer reviewed scientific articles and books provided extended treatments on the cogency ; and on the other difficult, the absurdness of the hypothesis. Within the context of homoeopathy, the H2O memory hypothesis posits that H2O has the ability to “store the memory of antigens and make physiological alterations in immune system cells at dilution degrees where no chemical substance should remain” , ( Ullman and Ullman, 2002, p.44 ) . This position is supported by several writers such as Cousens ( 2005 ) , Milgrom ( 2006 ) , Samal and Geckler ( 2001 ) and Rey ( 2003 ) . However, several writers such as Baudrillard ( 2001 ) , Bellavite and Signorini ( 2002 ) , and Thomas ( 2007 ) , rejected the hypothesis on theoretical evidences. Most of the scientific articles questioned the dependability of the experiments conducted by Jacques Benveniste in the late eightiess and the soundness of the hypothesis itself. The composing of organic structure fluids is extensively explored in scientific discipline text editions such as those authored by Ansel & A ; Stoklosa ( 2006 ) , Hinwood ( 2001 ) and Bullock and co-workers ( 2001 ) . Water in the extracellular and intracellular matrices was discussed in scientific discipline books. Assorted writers such as Van Loan and Boileau ( 1996 ) , Rastogi ( 2005 ) and Hinwood ( 2001 ) , tackled the subject extensively. However, there is a famine in available literature that delves on the ability of H2O to reassign quivers of ideas and emotions, as most the available literature are under the genre of new age thought and homoeopathy. Therefore, there is an evident spread in the literature with regard to the “intuitive belongingss of water’ .

1.3 Aim

The purpose of this literature reappraisal is to research the chemical and physical belongingss of H2O and to explicate how wellness is restored and sustained through the care of the organic structure ‘s fluidness.

2.1 Molecular Structure of Water

Structurally, the H2O molecule is made up of an O atom that is bonded to two H atoms, and “ has a little dipole moment” , ( Hornberger et al, 1998, p. 243 ) ( see Figure 1 ) . Campbell and Reese ( 2002, p. 45 ) explain that the part near the O atom of the H2O molecule is negatively charged ( ‘?- charge’ in Figure 1 below ) ; while the part near the two H atoms is positively charged ( ‘?+ charge’ ) . This status makes the H2O molecule ‘bipolar’ in nature. Therefore, ionic and polar compounds easy dissolve in H2O, ( Campbell and Reese, 2002, p. 46 ) . Garrison ( 2005, p. 138 ) claims that the polar nature of the H2O molecule “permits it to pull other molecules.” He explains that H bonds within the H2O molecule signifier when a H atom at the positive part of the H2O molecule becomes attracted to the O atom at the negative part of an next H2O molecule. He farther claims that “a hydrogen bond between molecules is about 5 % to 10 % every bit strong as a covalent bond within a molecule.” Kotz and others ( 1996, p. 602 ) claim that “because the O atom in H2O has two lone braces of negatrons, it can organize two or more hydrogen bonds with H atoms from next molecules” , ( see Figure 1 ) ; which consequences to a “tetrahedral agreement for the H atoms around each O, affecting two covalently bonded H atoms and two hydrogen-bonded H atoms.” Harmonizing to Kotz and Treichel ( 1996, p. 602 ) , this structural make up of the H2O molecule histories for its curious features. This position is supported by assorted writers such as Hornberger and others ( 1998 ) , Roebuck ( 2000 ) , Moore and others ( 2005 ) , Burton and co-workers ( 1999 ) , Garrison ( 2005 ) and Jackson ( 2006 ) .

Figure 1: Molecular Structure of Water

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The structural agreement of the O and H atoms of the H2O molecules and the formation of hydrogen bonds among other H2O molecules is described below:

The asymmetrical form of the molecule arises from a inclination of the four negatron braces in the valency shell of O to set up themselves symmetrically at the vertices of a tetrahedron around the O karyon. The two braces associated with covalent bonds [ … ] keeping the H atoms are drawn together somewhat, ensuing in the angle of 105A° between these bonds. This agreement consequences in a polar molecule, since there is a net negative charge toward the O terminal ( the vertex ) of the V-shaped molecule and a net positive charge at the hydrogen terminal. The electric dipole gives rise to attractive forces between neighboring opposite terminals of H2O molecules, with each O being able to pull two nearby H atoms of two other H2O molecules. Such H bonding, as it is called, has besides been observed in other H compounds. Although well weaker than the covalent bonds keeping the H2O molecule together, H bonding is strong plenty to maintain H2O liquid at ordinary temperatures ; its low molecular weight would usually be given to do it a gas at such temperatures. ( “ Water, ” 2007 )

Jackson ( 2006, p. 41 ) explains that “one of the most of import functions of H bonds is induing H2O with unusual belongingss such as a negative charge in volume with thaw, a high insulator invariable, a high thaw point, a high freeze point, and a high heat capacity.” Roebuck ( 2000, p. 85 ) maintains that “hydrogen bonding is the most of import attractive and orientating force in ice. It is responsible for the instead unfastened construction that causes it to hold a denseness below that of liquid water.” Moore and co-workers ( 2005, p.505 ) elaborate that “when ice thaws to organize liquid H2O, about 15 % of the H bonds are broken and the stiff ice lattice collapses. This makes the denseness of liquid H2O greater than that of ice at the runing point. The denseness of ice at 0EsC is 0.917g/ml, and that of liquid H2O at 0EsC is 0.998 g/ml.” Harmonizing to Hornberger and others ( 1998, p. 243 ) , “between 3.98 and 0EsC, H2O expands somewhat, but one time frozen, ice has a denseness of about 920 kilograms m-3. Because of the temperature dependance of H2O denseness, warm H2O will drift on top of ice chest H2O at temperatures above 3.98EsC, while below 3.98EsC, ice chest H2O will drift on top of heater water.” Aquatic life benefits greatly from this feature of H2O because it insulates aquatic ecosystems during winter by organizing ice on the surface of the organic structure of H2O, ( Roebuck 2000, p. 85 ) .

2.2. Peculiarities of Water

Water is “odourless, crystalline, tasteless and colorless “in little sums but exhibits a blue touch in big quantities” , ( “ Water, ” 2007 ) . It is considered as an efficient dissolver, due to its intrinsic capacity to fade out many sorts of solutes, ( Pommerville, 2006, p. 49 ; Campbell & A ; Reese, 2002, p.45 ; Starr, et Al. 2006, p. 27 ; Franks, 2000, p. 109 ; p. 42 ; Smith, et Al, 2004 ; and Hornberger et Al, 1998, p. 243 ) . Furthermore, the physical belongingss of H2O enable it to “remain a liquid within a temperature scope most suited to life processes” , ( Hornberger et al, 1998, p. 243 ) . Granger ( dateless ) , asserts that the curious features of H2O include the undermentioned: ( a ) its solid province is less heavy than its liquid province ; ( B ) it requires really high energies for it to make its boiling and runing points ; and ( degree Celsius ) its high heat capacity accounts for its stable temperature. Numerous writers such as Hornberger and co-workers ( 1998 ) ; Campbell and Reese ( 2002 ) ; Moore and others ( 2005 ) ; Burton and co-workers ( 1999 ) ; Garrison ( 2005 ) ; Jackson ( 2006 ) ; Granger ( dateless ) ; Roebuck ( 2000 ) and Smith and others ( 2004 ) ; claim that such curious features are due to the structural orientation of the H2O molecule and the H bonds that hold them together. Furthermore, assorted writers claim that the curious features of H2O such as its high surface tenseness is of import in keeping the rigidness of the cells and the cell signifier, ( Roebuck, 2002, p. 85 ) ; and that its high heat capacity and heat of vaporization minimizes sudden temperature alterations, stabilising the temperature of aquatic ecosystems, ( Roebuck, 2002, p. 85 ; Smith et Al, 2004 ; Moore et Al 2005, p. 505 ; Burton et al. , 1999, p. 218 ) .

A. Water has a High Surface Tension

Moore and co-workers ( 2005, p.505 ) , claim that H2O has the highest surface tenseness among all substances. However, Bergethon ( 1998, p. 567 ) does non back up such claim since he asserts that quicksilver has a higher surface tenseness than H2O. Despite the argument, a important organic structure of literature jointly maintains that H2O has a higher surface tenseness than most substances. Harmonizing to Sinko and Martin ( 2006, p. 735 ) , the surface tenseness of H2O is equal to “71.97dynes/cm at 25Es C.” Harmonizing to Moore and co-workers ( 2005, p. 505 ) , H2O tenseness “contributes to capillary action in workss ; causes formation of spherical droplets” ; and “supports insects on H2O surfaces. ” Myers ( 2003, p. 94 ) explains that “surface tenseness consequences from the imbalanced forces on molecules at the surface of the liquid.”

The phenomenon is attributed to coherence, the attractive forces moving between the molecules of the liquid [ … ] . The molecules within the liquid are attracted every bit from all sides, but those near the surface experience unequal attractive forces and therefore are drawn toward the centre of the liquid mass by this net force. The surface so appears to move like an highly thin membrane, and the little volume of H2O that makes up a bead assumes the form of a sphere, held changeless when an equilibrium between the internal force per unit area and that due to come up tenseness is reached. ( “ Surface Tension, ” 2007 ) .

Figure 2 below shows how surface molecules are pulled toward the inside of the liquid. The H2O molecules in the inside have balanced forces.

Figure 2 Surface Tension

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B. Water has High Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion and Latent Heat of Vaporization

Dadachanji ( 2003, p. 148 ) , defines the specific heat of a substance as “the sum of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gm of the substance by 1EsC.” The specific heat of H2O, which is about 4.18 J EsC-1K-1, ( Roy, 2002, p. 173 ) , is highest compared to all other substances ( see Table 1 ) , with the exclusion of ammonium hydroxide ( NH3) , ( Moore, et Al, 2005, p. 505 ) . Scientists attribute the high specific heat of H2O to its capacity to keep its temperature despite sudden temperature alterations in its milieus. Dadachanji ( 2003, p. 148 ) , explains that the high specific heat of H2O enables organic structures of H2O to chair “the temperature by absorbing heat in the summer and let go ofing heat in the winter” ; and adds that this “same belongings makes H2O valuable for usage as a coolant for engines and other heat-generating devices.” This position is supported by Moore and co-workers ( 2005, p.505 ) , who add that the high specific heat of H2O “moderates temperature in the environment and in organisms.”

Table 1: Specific heats and molar heat capacities for assorted substances at 20 C

Substance

degree Celsiuss in J/gm K

degree Celsiuss in cal/gm K or Btu/lb F

Molar C J/mol K

Aluminum

0.900

0.215

24.3

Bismuth

0.123

0.0294

25.7

Copper

0.386

0.0923

24.5

Brass

0.380

0.092

Gold

0.126

0.0301

25.6

Lead

0.128

0.0305

26.4

Silver

0.233

0.0558

24.9

Tungsten

0.134

0.0321

24.8

Zinc

0.387

0.0925

25.2

Mercury

0.140

0.033

28.3

Alcohol ( ethyl )

2.4

0.58

111

Water

4.186

1.00

75.2

Ice ( -10 C )

2.05

0.49

36.9

Granite

.790

0.19

Glass

.84

0.20

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Water besides has a high latent heat of merger, which is “the heat given up by a unit mass of a substance during fusion” , ( “ Fusion, ” 2007 ) . Conversely, it is “ the measure of heat necessary to alter one gm of any substance from solid to liquid at its thaw point “ ( “ Melting Point, ” 2007 ) Harmonizing to Moore and co-workers ( 2005, p. 505 ) , the latent heat of merger of H2O, which is equal to 333J/g is considered “highest of all molecular solids except NH3” , ( see table 2 ) . Garrison ( 2005, p. 142 ) , explains that water’s high latent heat of merger enables it to “absorb big measures of heat [ … ] but it does non alter in temperature until all ice has turned to liquid. Furthermore, Moore and co-workers ( 2005, p. 505 ) maintain that “freezing H2O releases big measure of thermic energy.” Crops are sprayed with liquid H2O to salvage them from stop deading. Smith and others ( 2004, p. 42 ) explain that the high latent heat of merger of H2O prevents it from stop deading easy since it requires a big temperature bead “to convert liquid H2O to the solid province of ice.” Table 2 below shows the thaw points and heat of merger of different substances.

Table 2: Thaw Points and Heat of Fusion

Substance

Melting point K

Melting point °C

Heat of merger ( 103J/kg )

Helium

3.5

-269.65

5.23

Hydrogen

13.84

-259.31

58.6

Nitrogen

63.18

-209.97

25.5

Oxygen

54.36

-218.79

13.8

Ethyl intoxicant

159

-114

104.2

Mercury

234

-39

11.8

Water

273.15

0.00

334

Sulfur

392

119

38.1

Lead

600.5

327.3

24.5

Antimony

903.65

630.50

165

Silver

1233.95

960.80

88.3

Gold

1336.15

1063.00

64.5

Copper

1356

1083

134

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Water has a high latent heat of vaporisation which is the heat required to change over H2O into vapor, ( Barry & A ; Chorley, 1998, p. 25 ) . The latent heat of vaporisation of H2O is about 2250 J/ m2( see Table 3 ) , which is “the highest of all molecular substances” , ( Moore, et Al, 2005, p. 505 ) . Therefore, “water vaporizes easy when heated” , which consequences to the stableness of temperature of aquatic systems and land multitudes, ( Rand et al, 2005, p. 9 ) .

Table 3: Boiling Points and Heat of Vaporization

Substance

Boiling point K

Boiling point °C

Heat of vaporisation ( 103J/kg )

Helium

4.216

-268.93

20.9

Hydrogen

20.26

-252.89

452

Nitrogen

77.34

-195.81

201

Oxygen

90.18

-182.97

213

Ethyl intoxicant

351

78

854

Mercury

630

357

272

Water

373.15

100.00

2256

Sulfur

717.75

444.60

326

Lead

2023

1750

871

Antimony

1713

1440

561

Silver

2466

2193

2336

Gold

2933

2660

1578

Copper

2840

2567

5069

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2.3 Types of Water

In footings of aquatic resources, H2O is by and large categorised as either: ( 1 ) surface Waterss or ( 2 ) groundwater, ( McKinney et al, 2007, p. 250 ) . “Surface Waterss include both ( 1 ) fluxing Waterss, such as watercourses and rivers ; and ( 2 ) basinal Waterss such as pools and lakes” , ( McKinney et al, 2007, p.250 ) . Therefore, “surface Waterss include watercourses, rivers, pools, lakes, and immediate unfastened H2O wetlands” , ( Ketchikan Coastal Management Plan, undated ) . Table 4 presents the H2O volumes in the hydrosphere by type of H2O resources.

Flowing Waterss are besides referred to as lotic systems which “have a unidirectional flow of water” ( see Figure3 ) ; although they vary greatly in their graduated table from the little mountain watercourse to the Amazon River” , ( Jones, 1997, p. 46 ) . On the other manus, basinal Waterss are standing Waterss which are jointly called lentic or lacustrine environments, which are described by Dodds ( 2002, p. 100 ) as “habitats with deep, non-flowing waters.” Jones ( 1997, p. 46 ) describes the lentic environment in the same manner, claiming that “ lentic systems “ consist the standing-water systems including lakes ( lacustrine home ground ) and pools, which although they may hold really slow-moving air current and convection-induced currents, ne’er have unidirectional flows.” Lakes by and large have three major life zones ( see Figure4 ) , viz. : “the littoral zone closest to the shallow H2O shore ; the limnetic, in the unfastened, well-lit H2O off from most flora ; and the lower profundal zones countries of low O and light” , ( “ Lake, Body of Water, ” 2007 ) . In comparing, “ponds are by and large little, shallow lakes ; the standard for distinguishing between pools and lakes is normally temperature. Ponds have a more consistent temperature throughout ; while lakes, because they are deeper, have a graded temperature construction that depends on the season” , ( “ Lake, Body of Water, ” 2007 ) .

Groundwater by and large refers to “ H2O beneath the Earth’s surface” , ( McKinney et al, 2007, p. 250 ) . Nwezi ( 2001 ) , enumerates the zones of subsurface H2O as follows: ( a ) gravitative H2O ; ( B ) capillary H2O ; and ( degree Celsius ) hygroscopic H2O. He besides provided a definition for each zone as follows:

  1. Gravitational Water – “drains through the ( unsaturated subsurface under the influence of gravitative forces.”
  2. Capillary Water – “rises above the H2O tabular array due to come up tenseness forces.”
  3. Hygroscopic Water – “ held by adhesive forces onto the surface of dirt grains.”

Table 4: Water volumes in the hydrosphere

Water

Volume(kilometer3)

Volume ( % )

All H2O ( fresh and salt )

Oceans

1,348,000,000

97.39

Ice caps, icebergs, glaciers

227,820,000

2.01

Groundwater and dirt wet

8,062,000

0.58

Lakes and rivers

225,000

0.02

Atmosphere

13,000

0.001

Sum

1,384,120,000

100

Fresh H2O ( 2.6 per cent of all H2O )

Ice caps, icebergs, glaciers

27,818,246

77.23

Groundwater, 0-0.8 kilometer

3,551,572

9.86

Groundwater, 0.8-4 kilometer

4,448,470

12.35

Soil wet

61,234

0.17

Freshwater lakes

126,070

0.35

Rivers

1,081

0.003

Hydrated Earth minerals

360

0.001

Atmosphere

14,408

0.04

Life

1,081

0.003

Sum

36,020,000

100

Beginning: Huggett ( 1997, p. 138 )

Figure 3 Lotic System

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Figure 4 Three zones of a lake and the aquatic communities

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2.4 Movement of Water

Allaby ( 2000, p. 91 ) explains that the “movement of H2O between oceans, air, and land constitutes the hydrologic cycle” , ( see Figure 5 ) . Girard ( 2005, p.204 ) , describes the hydrologic rhythm as being comprised of the undermentioned procedures: vaporization, transpiration, condensation and precipitation.

The heat of the Sun warms the surface of the Earth, doing tremendous measures of H2O to vaporize from the oceans. On land, H2O vapour enters the ambiance from workss as a consequence of transpiration { … ] . Extra H2O evaporates from lakes, rivers and wet soil. [ … ] . As the H2O vapor rises, it cools and condenses into all right droplets that form into clouds. Predominating air currents carry damp air and clouds across the surface of the Earth. If damp air cools sufficiently, H2O droplets or ice crystals fall to the Earth as precipitation ( rain, sleet, hail, or snow ) [ … ] .Some precipitation becomes locked in glaciers, but most of it either sinks into the dirt or flows downhill, as overflow, into the nearby watercourse and lakes, finally doing its manner through rivers and wetlands to the ocean. ( Girard, 2005, p.204 ) .

The motion of H2O into surface systems is described by McKinney and co-workers ( 2007, p. 250 ) , who claim that about “20 % of the precipitation that falls on land flows over the surface, foremost as a sheet wash, so as riverlets, and so as watercourses. The watercourse ( frequently called “tributaries” ) finally unify into a big river. As the running H2O flows from the riverlets through the rivers, it carves out increasingly larger channels, making a tree-like pattern.” On the other manus, motion of H2O into subsurface systems involves infiltration, infiltration, interflow and groundwater recharge, ( Nwezi, 2001 ) . Wilson and Moore ( 1998 ) provided the definitions of infiltration, infiltration, influx and groundwater recharge which are presented below:

  1. Infiltration – “the procedure of falling rain or runing snow come ining a dirt or stone across its interface with the ambiance, or H2O from a watercourse come ining its streambed across the stream-streambed interface.”
  2. Percolation – “slow laminar motion of H2O through little gaps within a porous material.”
  3. Interflow – “lateral motion of H2O in the unsaturated zone during and instantly after a precipitation event. The H2O traveling as interflow discharges straight into a watercourse, lake, or other outlet.”
  4. Recharge – “the processes involved in the add-on of H2O to the saturated zone, of course by precipitation or overflow, or unnaturally by distributing or injection.”

Figure 5 Hydrologic rhythm

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Figure 6 Motion of Water

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2.5 Molecular Memory of Water

Thomas ( 2007 ) provided a historical history on the development of the H2O memory hypothesis. The writer maintains that the molecular memory of H2O was foremost investigated by “Jacques Benveniste in the late eightiess and 20 old ages subsequently the argument is still ongoing even though an increasing figure of scientists report they have confirmed the basic results.” The writer claims that:

One working hypothesis was that molecules can pass on with each other, interchanging information without being in physical contact and that at least some biological maps can be mimicked by certain energetic manners features of a given molecule. These considerations informed explorative research which led to the guess that biological signalling might be catching by electromagnetic agencies. Around 1991, the transportation of specific molecular signals to sensitive biological systems was achieved utilizing an amplifier and electromagnetic spirals. In 1995, a more sophisticated process was established to enter, digitise and play back these signals utilizing a multimedia computing machine. ( Thomas, 2007, p. 151 ) .

Harmonizing to Cousens ( 2005, p. 496 ) , “water is most structured at 4EsC or 37.5Es C. In that structured province, which is our biological province as good, in our cells, it holds memory, information, prana and blessings.” Milgrom ( 2006, p. 211 ) , relates the H2O memory consequence to “a dynamic ‘ordering’ of water’s invariably exchanging web of intermolecular H bonds, induced by the fabrication procedure of homeopathic remedies.” He adds that “this could take to a long-range molecular ‘coherence’ between millions of nomadic H2O molecules.” Other mainstream scientific literature buttresses such claims about the molecular memory of H2O. For case, Samal and Geckler ( 2001 ) suggest that during dilution of substances, H2O demonstrates a type of memory consequence despite the presence of the molecules of the original substance. This was subsequently proven by experimentation by Rey ( 2003 ) , through a thermo-luminescence spectra informations which indicated that molecular features of H2O are retained after dilution. However, Bellavite and Signorini ( 2002, p.68 ) assert that “the construct of the memory of H2O is no more than a metaphor denoting the hypothesis whereby the physicochemical belongingss of H2O can be modified by a solute and remain so for a certain period of clip even in the absence of the solute itself.” Baudrillard ( 2001, p. 227 ) , claims that “the mere transportation or transmittal of the electromagnetic moving ridge of the molecule seemingly produces precisely the same consequence as the physical presence of the molecule in the solution. In other words, we reach a point of entire abstraction whereby the effects are no longer linked to substance and cause, and the presence of the molecule is wholly unnecessary.” Abgrall ( 2000, p. 36 ) criticised the H2O memory hypothesis by claiming that it is contrary to common sense. The writers add that “since the creative activity of the planet Earth, H2O has been invariably recycled. What so, of the curative consequence of the piss of dinosaurs or river rats, which must hold become improbably effectual in the class of consecutive dilutions? ” Thomas ( 2007, p. 151 ) questioned the soundness of Jacques Benveniste’s experiments and asserts that:

From a physical and chemical position, these experiments pose a conundrum, since it is non clear what mechanism can prolong such ‘water memory’ of the exposure to molecular signals. From a biological position, the mystifier is what nature of imprinted consequence ( H2O construction ) can impact biological map.

3.1 The Composition of Body Fluids

A significant organic structure of literature provides a wealth of information sing the composing of organic structure fluids. Ansel & A ; Stoklosa ( 2006, p. 185 ) maintain that the general composing of organic structure fluids can be described in footings of organic structure compartments: “intracellular ( within cells ) , intravascular ( blood plasma ) , or interstitial ( between cells in the tissue ) . Intravascular and interstitial fluids normally are grouped together and termed extracellular fluid.” Figure 7 below shows the composing of organic structure fluids in the different compartments.

Hinwood ( 2001, p. 199 ) , explains that the composing of organic structure fluids includes “solutes, suspended atoms and colloidal particles.” He elaborates that the features of the organic structure fluids are greatly dependent on its composing. Bullock and co-workers ( 2001, p. 305 ) , maintain that about 95 % of the solutes in the organic structure fluid is comprised by ions, whereby “the amount of the concentrations ( in mEq/L ) of the cations equals the amount of the concentrations ( in mEq/L ) of the anions in each compartment, doing the fluid in each compartment electrically neutral.” Furthermore, Ansel and Stoklosa ( 2006, p. 185 ) provide an estimation of the changing concentrations of entire organic structure H2O of people of different organic structure types.

Entire organic structure H2O in grownup males usually ranges between 55 % and 65 % of organic structure weight depending on the proportion of fat. The greater the proportion of fat, the lesser the proportion of H2O. Valuess for grownup adult females are about 10 % less than those for work forces. Newborn babies have about 75 % organic structure H2O, which decreases with growing and additions in organic structure fat. Of the grownup body’s H2O content, up to two-thirds is intracellular and one-third is extracellular. The proportion of extracellular organic structure H2O, as a fraction of entire organic structure weight, decreases in babies in the first twelvemonth from about 45 % to 30 % while the intracellular part additions. For an grownup, about 2500 milliliter of day-to-day H2O consumption ( from ingested liquids and nutrients and from oxidative metamorphosis ) are needed to equilibrate the day-to-day H2O end product. ( Ansel & A ; Stoklosa, 2006, p. 185 ) .

Furthermore, Van Loan and Boileau ( 1996, p.229 ) maintain that “water content decreases with age in both genders but the rate of diminution is faster in women.”

Figure 7: Composition of Body Fluids

Electrolyte

Plasma, ( mEq/L ) [ molar concentration ]

Plasma Water ( mEq/L ) [ molal concentration ]

Interstitial Fluid( mEq/L )

Intracellular Fluid ( mEq/L )

Cations:

Sodium

142

153

145

10

Potassium

4

4.3

4

160

Calcium

5

5.4

5

2

Magnesium

2

2.2

2

26

Entire Cations:

153

165

156

198

Anions:

Chloride

101

108.5

114

3

Bicarbonate

27

29

31

10

Phosphate

2

2.2

2

100

Sulfate

1

1

1

20

Organic Acid

6

6.5

7

Protein

16

17

1

65

Entire Anions:

153

165

156

Beginning:hypertext transfer protocol: //physioweb.med.uvm.edu/bodyfluids/ionic.htm

3.2 Water in the Extracellular Matrix

An extracellular matrix ( ECM ) in multicellular systems, which is chiefly composed of “collagen and non-collagen material” , creates “an aqueous environment about cells to protect them from dehydration and damage” , ( Rastogi, 2005, p. 74 ) . This protective map of the ECM is supported by Ingersoll and Mistry ( 2006, p. 14 ) , who claim that “the extracellular matrix, which is 70 % H2O and 30 % solid, determines the signifier and map of connective tissue and may modulate protein synthesis by cells in response to lading or use.” The extracellular fluid is preponderantly influenced by Na and chloride concentration, ( Ansel and Stoklosa ( 2006, p. 185 ) . Van Loan and Boileau ( 1996, p.229 ) observe that although ab initio, both work forces and adult females have similar extracellular fluid, males lose extracellular fluid with age ; whereas adult females “show no important alteration in ECF/WT with age.”

3.3 Intracellular Fluid

Harmonizing to Hinwood ( 2001, p.199 ) , “the fluid composing of all cells is considered as one big unstable compartment known as the intracellular fluid. This fluid is formed from substances go throughing through cell membranes and by the industry of substances within cells.” Ansel and Stoklosa ( 2006, p. 185 ) maintain that the cardinal constituents of the intracellular fluid are K and phosphate. Furthermore, harmonizing to Van Loan and Boileau ( 1996, p.229 ) , the intercellular fluid “starts at similar degrees for both work forces and adult females and demonstrates a steep diminution with age” ; and that the “ECF/ ICF ratio by and large increases with age in both sexes chiefly due to a lessening in ICF.”

3.4 Transportation of Vibration of Thought and Emotions through Water

In both physical and intuitive degrees, H2O is considered as a bearer of information. Harmonizing to Cousens ( 2005, p. 485 ) , “water, even if the existent molecules of a substance are non at that place, as we have learned from homoeopathy, can still keep a positive or negative vibration.” Furthermore, the writer reveals that:

The great research workers of H2O such as Viktor Schauberger and Johann Grander, have established a three-part apprehension of H2O that clarifies its importance: ( 1 ) Water is a bearer of information both of energy and of specific vibrational information. ( 2 ) Water retains that information. Through distilling, we have the ability to wipe out this information. ( 3 ) Water can reassign information. Johann Grander, the discoverer of Grander Water, established a really of import technique or system, which non merely brings new information in, but prior to that, erases all harmful information that is in the H2O. ( Cousens, 2005, p. 485 ) .

This is supported by Young and Young ( 2001 p. 79 ) , who explain that the manner for a water witch to happen H2O is via “a resonance between water’s elusive quiver and the thought ( a idea is a quiver ) of H2O in the dowser’s consciousness” , proposing a transportation of quiver of idea via the medium of H2O. With regard to aquatic ecosystems, Herring ( 2002, p. 124 ) maintains that quivers in H2O are “produced by chance, but others are calculated, for communicating intents, and have different wavelengths ( ? ) and frequencies.” He adds that quivers are transmitted through H2O. He explains that “ the deformations or sounds spread from the points of beginning as moving ridges of acoustic force per unit area ; as they spread, they carry information about the amplitude, frequence and way about the cause of the disturbance” , ( p.124 ) .

Additionally, H2O is besides associated with emotions. Haas ( 2003, p. 189 ) assets that the H2O component of the Chinese horoscope regulations over the emotions, claiming that: “When fluxing, all is good ; but when blocked or dead, great force per unit area can develop or disease can put in.” This position is strongly buttressed by Avery ( 2004, p. 191 ) who maintains that “the H2O component relates to emotion. Water describes compassion and sensitiveness, particularly when it relates to the hurting or public assistance of others. Water can perforate many substances, and an person with a great trade of H2O in his chart may travel into mutualism with people around him.”

4.1 Regulation of Water in the Body

The ordinance of H2O in the organic structure falls under ‘osmoregulation’ which is “the procedure by which the osmotic force per unit area of the blood and tissue fluids is unbroken constant” , ( Roberts and King,1987, p. 138 ) . Harmonizing to Campbell and Reese ( 2002, p. 937 ) , “this osmoregulation ( direction of the water’s body’s H2O content and solute composing ) is mostly based on controlled motions of solutes between internal fluids to the external environment. This regulates the motion of H2O, which follows solutes by osmosis. Animals must besides take assorted metabolic waste merchandises before they accumulate to harmful levels.” Waugh and Grant ( 2003, p. 345 ) , explain the procedure of osmoregulation, therefore:

The balance between unstable consumption and end product is hence controlled by the kidneys. The minimal urinary end product, i.e. , the smallest volume required to egest the body’s waste merchandises, is about 500 milliliters per twenty-four hours. The sum produced in surplus of this is controlled chiefly by antidiuretic endocrine ( ADH ) released into the blood by the posterior lobe of the pituitary secretory organ. There is a close nexus between the posterior hypophysis and the hypothalamus in the encephalon [ … ] . Sensory nervus cells in the hypothalamus ( osmoreceptors ) detect alterations in the osmotic force per unit area of the blood. Nerve urges from the osmoreceptors stimulate the posterior lobe of the pituitary secretory organ to let go of ADH. When the osmotic force per unit area is raised, ADH end product is increased and as a consequence, H2O resorption by the cells in distal convoluted tubules and roll uping canals is increased, cut downing the blood osmotic force per unit area and ADH end product.

Figure 8 below illustrates the negative feedback mechanism of osmoregulation.

Figure