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Joanna Wilbur 2010-2011 Global: Summer Reading Notes The Prince By Niccolo Machiavelli 1) Why did Machiavelli write The Prince? Machiavelli wrote The Prince because he wanted to impress Lorenzo de Medici, who was the current ruler, and prove that he was knowledgeable and a useful advisor to him. He also wrote it as a mirror for Princes to read and understand how to be effective in power. 2) Name three recurring themes in The Prince? 1) One recurring theme in The Prince was that successful war is the foundation upon which all states are built. 2) Another is that it is better for a prince to be feared then hated or loved. ) The last is free will and the cause of a prince’s success or failure is caused by his own free will. 3) Describe the Role of armies according to Machiavelli. According to Machiavelli the role of armies id to defend the kingdom and to expand into new territories but he warns that it is not good enough to just have a strong army, strong protection and an ability to maintain morale among the troops and citizens is important. 4) Why does Machiavelli say that it is better for a prince “to be both loved and feared”? Is it possible for a prince to be both? Explain.

Machiavelli says this because when a Prince is feared people will respect him and do what he says and they will love him and praise him. It is also possible to be both feared and loved but it is very difficult and only great rulers are able to create the balance. 5) In Chapter 20, what three bits of advice does Machiavelli give the prince? In Chapter 20, Machiavelli says to the prince that when trying to create peace and trust in a kingdom, not during wartime, you should never disarm the citizens unless the prince annex’s a state and then to disarm the subjects until there is peace there is the best choice.

Also a prince can build a fortress to curb rebellion or destroy them to maintain control in newly acquired states. Both of these are not a bad thing for a prince to do depending on the circumstances that they are in because a fortress will not be able to protect a prince who is hated by his subjects but also no fortress with leave the kingdom open for attack. But the issue is not whether a prince should build a fortress but that a prince should not put all his faith in it.

The last thing Machiavelli says to the prince is that many princes because great by defeating opposition and one way that a prince can enhance their stature is to foster opposition that can be easily overcome. 6) According to Machiavelli in Chapter 21, what must a prince do to be esteemed? According to Machiavelli, for a prince to be esteemed he must have great enterprises, create noble examples, becoming an ally of one side in a conflict, and encourage his citizens to excel in their occupation and live their lives in peace. 7) List and describe the ten characteristics of a Machiavellian ruler. . War-wise: a prince must be able to handle war not only to gain land but also to defend and stabilize his own kingdom. 2. Noble: a prince must be noble and kind hearted to be both feared and loved. 3. Kind-hearted: a prince must be both kind-hearted and noble to be both loved and feared. 4. Aware of his surroundings: a prince must be able to see any developing problems or advantages of other kingdoms. 5. Good Fortune: Machiavelli says that this is a key characteristic for a good prince because a prince cannot build, repair or destroy anything if he doesn’t have good fortune. . Observant of the men around him: a good prince keeps an eye on his servants, subjects, and friends and an even closer watch on his enemies. 7. Overall Wisdom: a prince must be wise in general. 8. Avoidant of hatred or despise: a prince can’t lead a kingdom of people that hate him. 9. Keep the faith in others at a minimum: Trust is good but can be broken over the smallest amount of greed. 10. Bravery and strength: necessary for any great man. 8) As you perceive it, describe what a state might be like under a Machiavellian ruler.

Machiavellian rulers are tough and kind and have every good characteristic that rulers should have. So a state under Machiavellian rule would be good for everyone. Everyone would have money and food because of the good economy and would be safe and protected because of the good army. A Machiavellian ruler in my opinion was the best for the kingdoms in the middle ages and before and if there were still kingdoms now it would be the best for them too. Utopia By Sir Thomas More 1) Describe the geography of Utopia. What role does geography play in the way Utopian society developed?

Utopia is located on a crescent- shaped island that curves in on itself enclosing a large bay protecting it from the ocean and wind. Its only entrance is through a group of rocks and the way through is only known by the Utopians so any external attack is unlikely. The Utopian geography affects the culture and the economy because there are no outside influences and the economy because there aren’t any wars to pay for. This also helps with the peace and health of the people there because they don’t have to fight. 2) Describe the economy of Utopia.

In utopia, everyone serves a purpose and takes up a particular trade. On a rotational basis people from the city go to the countryside so they can learn to do something useful so they can be a productive individual. If a person doesn’t contribute to the society then they cannot reap the benefits of the economy’s success. This law creates a work ethic within the society and helps to teach both kids and adults the key of sharing. Basically, the economy of Utopia is good and the government is Socialist. 3) Define the following terms by consulting a dictionary:

Capitalism- economic system of private ownership of capital Socialism- social system based on government control of production and distribution of goods Communism- social organization in which goods are held in common 4) Choose any five of the following topics and describe their role in Utopia: cities, community life, economy, education, artisans, agriculture, philosophy, religion, law, foreign relations, and slavery. Economy plays a major role in Utopia because without as good of an economy as there is everyone would be poor and starving.

Economy also plays a major role because it creates a work ethic in the community. Education also plays a major role in Utopia because Utopians work a 6-hour-day and much of the rest of the time is taken up by both academic and moral learning. Artisans basically make up the economy because in order to get any benefits out of the economy, everyone has to learn a trade. There are many Religious views in Utopia but prejudice has been outlawed so More shows a form of religious toleration which is a reaction to Henry VIII’s own prejudice. The law in Utopia is also founded on a sense of tolerance.

While there are punishments for a variety of crimes, they tend to be more just and relative to the charge against the individual which allows the punishment to relate better to the crime. 5) What does Utopia tell us about More’s views of humans and humanity? More’s view of humanity and human nature is essentially one of hope. He says that there is hope for humanity and the human nature is essentially good but what prevents people from reaching their potential are certain human characteristics such as pride and greed. 6) Would it be possible to establish a community like Utopia? Why or why not?

It is possible to create a place like Utopia but it is completely impossible to keep out greed and pride and it is impossible to keep reality from creeping into the picture. Animal Farm By George Orwell 1) Why did Orwell write Animal Farm? Orwell wrote Animal Farm to prove that the system of democracy always turns back into dictatorship and the cycle always begins again and keeps going. 2) Why did Orwell use farm animals in the book instead of people? Orwell used farm animals because they have a much simpler mind and thought process and have less complicated feelings then people so it was easier to understand. ) What event was the book supposed to cover? The Russian Revolution 4) List the changes to the commandments that occur during the course of the book? Throughout Animal Farm there are a lot of changes to the commandments that many of the animals don’t understand. The very first commandments after Old Major dies are 1. Whatever goes on two legs is an enemy. 2. Whatever goes on four legs, or has wings, is a friend. 3. No animal shall wear clothes. 4. No animal shall sleep in a bed. 5. No animal shall drink alcohol. 6. No animal shall kill any other animal. . All animals are equal. Then the 4th commandment is changed to “No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets”; the 6th commandment is changed to “No animal shall kill another animal without cause”; the 5th commandment is changed to “No animal shall drink alcohol to excess” and finally the last commandment is changed to “all animals are equal, but some are more equal than others”. The only commandment that is never changed is the 3rd because by the time the pigs adopt clothes they are so powerful and the other animals are so fearful that it is unnecessary.

These changes on the commandment and complete betrayal of animalism proves Orwell’s main theme that all power corrupts. 4) Choose any five characters and describe their physical and emotional features as well as whom they are supposed to represent. 1) Old Major- Old Major was a 12-year-old pig. He was majestic-looking and the leader of all the animals on Animal Farm. He represents Vladimir Lynch Lenin. 2) Napoleon- Napoleon was a large-fierce looking Berkshire Boar who was not much of a talker. Napoleon represents Joseph Stalin. ) Snowball- Snowball was a more vivacious pig then Napoleon was a quick speaker and more inventive but not considered to have the same amount of character. He represents Leon Trotsky. 4) Boxer- was an enormous work horse, 18 hands high but not of first rate intelligence. One of the strongest and hardest working animals on the farm. Boxer represents the working class and all that undergirds the political drama carried out by the elites. 5) Mr. Frederick- the tough, shrewd operator of Pinchfield, a neighboring farm. He represents Adolf Hitler. In an essay of at least 500 words, answer the following question.

Be sure to use examples from the texts to support your answer. Machiavelli vs. More Contrast a state under Machiavellian ruler with a state organized like Utopia. (Include References to Orwell and Animal Farm) ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________