Rationale , Pros and Cons of the Dual Law Enforcement System

The Criminal Justice System “The judicial system of the United States is unique in so far as it is actually made up of two different court systems, the Federal Court System and the State Court System”. ( United States Courts). “The U. S. Constitution created a governmental structure for the United States known as Federalism. The Constitution gives certain powers to the federal government and reserves the res for the states.. The Constitution states that the governments is supreme with regard to those powers expressly or implicitly delegated to it, the states remain supreme in matters reserved for them”. United States Courts). “The Federal Court System refers to two types of courts, an Article III court, thes courts were derived from Article III of the U. S. Constitution. These courts include U. S. District Courts, and U. S. Circuit Courts of Appeals and U. S. Supreme Court. They also include two special courts, the U. S. Court of Claims and the U. S. Court of International Trade. These courts are special because unlike other courts, they are not courts of a general jurisdiction. Courts of a general jurisdiction can hear almost any case.

All judges are of Article III courts and are appointed by the President of the United States with the consent and advice of the Senat and hold office during good behavior”. ( United States Courts). The second type of courts established by Congress. They are the Magistrate Courts, Bankruptcy Courts, the U. S. Court of Military Appeals, the U. S. Tax Courts, and the U. S. Courts of Veterans Affairs. The judges are appointed by the President of the United States with the consent and advice of the U. S.

Congress, and they hold office for a set number of years usually about 15 years for Magistrate and Bankruptcy Courts and are attached to each U. S. District Court. The U. S Court of Military Appeals, the U. S. Tax Courts and U. S. Courts of Veteran Appeals are called Article I Courts or legislative courts”. ( United Stats Courts). “The State Court Systems are not exactly alike. Most State Courts Systems are made up of two sets of trial courts and a trial court with limited jurisdiction, (family, traffic etc) and trial courts of general jurisdiction, (main trial-level courts).

Intermediate appellate courts (in many states and not all states 0 and the highest state are called by various names. Unlike federal judges, most state judges are not appointed for life, but, either they are elected or appointed, ( or a combination of both for a certain number of years). They are courts with limited jurisdiction. They are Probate Courts, Family Courts Traffic Courts, Juvenile Courts, Small Claims Courts and Municipal Courts”. (United States Courts). The State Trial Courts of general jurisdiction are the main Trial Courts in the State system. These Courts are Circuits Courts, Superior Courts of common pleasand even in New York, Supreme Courts. In certain cases, these courts can hear appeals from trial courtsof limited jurisdiction. The State Courts include Intermediate Appellate Courts and Supreme Courts”. (United States Courts). “The Department of Homeland Security was created by the Homeland Security Act, 2002 after the terrorist attach on the World Center New York City , September 11, 2002.

It grew out of the Office of Homeland Security established by President George W. Bush” . ( Answers. com). “The components of the Department of Homeland Security are; The Customs and Border Protection, Federal Emergency Management Agency, The Transportation Security Administration, The U S Citizenship and Immigration Services, The U S Coast Guard, the U S Immigration and Custom Enforcement, The U S Secret Service and The Office of Inspector General”. ( Department of Homeland Security). The goal of the Department of Homeland Security is to secure America from the many threats we face. This requires the dedication of its employees in jobs that range from aviation and border security to emergency response, from cyber security analyst to the chemical facility Inspector. Our duties are wide ranging, but, our goal is clear, keeping America”. (Department of Homeland Security). Sources Georgia Department of Public Safety, Online. United States Courts Online. USACOPS, Online.

Sheriff’s Department, Chatham County Georgia, Online. Department of Homeland Security, Online. Answers. com. On;ine. “The State of Georgia Law Enforcement Agencies consists of the State Police, Highway Patrol, Sheriff’s Departments, Municipal Police and the University Police in Georgia”. ( Georgia Department of Public Safety). Georgia State Law Enforcement Agencies are charged with many different roles.. They are charged with keeping the state’s highways, rural areas and many other areas.

State Police consist of Sheriffs, Police, State Patrol , Marshals AND Fire Rescue and are charged with keeping motor vehicles inspected per U. S. regulations. Many other agencies within the state as well as share many other roles with local law enforcement agencies. The Law Enforcement Agencies also conduct investigations , public relations, and community initiatives. The difference between Local and State Law Enforcement agencies , is their resources, staff in some cases, budget and jurisciction”. Associated Content). For the most part State and Federal Law Enforcement Agencies share the same directives as well as support and oversees the same laws of the land. The differences that their agencies have are; staffing, funding, support and operations in today’s society the roles and duties that are assigned to these law enforcement agencies continue to change often”. ( Associated Content). Federal Law Enforcement Agencies