Same as other industry, edifice and building company concentrate their aims on Time, Cost and Quality. Contractor ‘s company necessitate an effectual scheme to cover with the alteration of different societal environment, wide economic market, political developments and technological advancement. “ The environment is taken into history to cover with its immediate or transactional environment which consists of its current and possible hereafter rivals, its current and possible client base, its supply concatenation and its beginning of capital. ” ( Sadler et.al 2003 )
Information Technology ( IT ) has been adopted for more than three decennaries in the building industry ( Hansen and Tatum, 1987 ) and strategically applies to better company ‘s fight and effectivity in the concern procedure ( Stewart et.al 1998 ) . Recent research has found that the undertaking aims achieve through integrated of administrations, squads, plants, information and other properties ( Chua, M.ASCE and Godinot, 2006 ) . Technology alteration and diffusion of new engineering is traveling frontward with an unbelievable velocity. Such development and diffusion accelerates the importance of invention for houses if they are to stay competitory ( Dess et.al 2004 ) .
Procedure of IT application history in building direction Begin from the measure of personal file/storage to LAN ( local Area Network ) which portion informations among individual group of building direction evolvement towards internet/web-based which involve the phase of whole administration and international.
ICMS act as the tools to carry through the current demand for strategic direction. Building and building industry require a tools like ICMS which able to incorporate all the input informations and cut down unneeded clip and cost at the same clip enhance quality of public presentation end product. Execution of this system can better important productiveness, efficiency and competitory advantage to their companies. ICMS intending integrate ( gather up/linking ) available informations and information from each subdivision or different section of a undertaking life rhythm attack to their building direction under one centralise system.
The rapid development of Information Technology ( IT ) applications does let and supply and better ICMS. This position has been supported in the work of Dikbas, et.al. ( 2004 ) with the acknowledgment that improved communicating has become indispensable to organizational alterations, the edifice industry is already following computer-aided communicating. ICMS application should be exchanged, shared and managed efficaciously as earlier research ( Dikbas, et.al. 2004 ) .
Earlier research Dikbas, et.al. ( 2004 ) pointed that “ with the demand for better information direction and undertaking control throughout the building procedure, houses within the building industry are encompassing alteration in the signifier of Internet-based undertaking web sites ( besides called undertaking extranets ) to pass on undertaking in a fast, cost effectual and efficient mode. ”
Meanwhile application of ICMS is merely possible as discuss by Luiten and Tolman ( 1997 ) when the application of integrating for information and knowledge both available via electronically farther with the status of economically executable when information and cognition input is automated. Besides that, Bjork ( 1994 ) highlighted the critical issue appear during set uping the substructure for informations structuring and reassign criterions for computing machine integrated building ( CIC ) application, digitised building information services and altering form of organizing undertakings.
2.1.2 Restrictions and Barriers Of Implementing ICMS
Rapid development and high public presentation require from current fast-track undertaking for edifice and building industry. Traditional building direction being replace by new development as Integrated Construction Management System ( ICMS ) . ICMS is the result where combine the IT engineering and web-based system into traditional building direction system.
However, this modern direction system does non implement passion and widely among contractor company in Malaysia building industry. Contractor in Malaysia still behave conservative towards acceptance of ICMS although there are plentifulness of back uping informations sing the advantages and recommendation of ICMS from IT industry. Further research on restrictions, barriers and general usage of ICMS for contractor in Malaysia building industry were presented as below.
A ) Cost Of Implementing ICMS Vs Functional Requirement Of ICMS
Unlike other industries, contractor in Malaysia building industry require to cover with different state of affairss and fortunes which appear unique from undertaking to project. Features of undertaking members such as client, adviser, undertaking squads and sub-contractors may variance among different undertaking. Undertaking features remain uncertainness like proficient issue, direction manner and commercial facet. Therefore, building direction system for each undertaking site differs significantly which create job for ICMS to compatible with all user. In Malaysia building industry remains broad cost utilizing this engineering due to the uncertainness of:
Practise usage of signifier of contract by current building industry such as PAM ( Pertubuhan Arkitek Malaysia ) signifier, CIDB ( Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia ) signifier, JKR ( Jabatan Kerja Raya ) signifier and etc. Each different signifiers of contract have their ain features illustration like: JKR supply monetary value fluctuation but PAM signifier does n’t let for this clause. Price of fluctuation creates major alteration among monetary value and sum of each individual point, this require an extra monitoring characteristic from ICMS. For contractor ‘s company who work merely for private occupation use PAM signifier does non necessitate wage extra cost for this sort of system characteristic.
There are 6 categories of Contractor in Malaysia which determine the restriction of undertaking stamps. Below Table 2.1 shows the different class of contractors and bound of undertaking stamp amount in Malaysia. Clearly shows that Class A and B rank as big size building companies, Class C and D rank as medium size building companies meanwhile Class E and F as little size building companies. It is difficult for these three classs of contractor companies to follow under same maps and characteristics of ICMS
Finance Limit ( RM )
5,000,001 until 10,000,000
2,000,001 until 5,000,000
500,001 until 2,000,000
200,001 until 500,000
Table 2. 1: Class of contractor and the undertaking stamp restriction
( Beginning: Malaysia Ministry of Works, Contractor Services Centre ( PKK ) official portal )
The above uncertainness issue being propose solution by mentioning Chan and Leung ( 2004 ) define that there are three types of building undertaking direction system for AEC ( Architect, Engineering and Construction ) industry: The fee-based undertaking direction service, the build-it-yourself solutions and the web-enabled package. However, following Table 2.2 analyse the job of acceptance which still remain unresolved for contractor demand in Malaysia building industry towards three sort of building undertaking direction system available.
Fee-based undertaking direction service
Low execution cost.
Minimal IT expertness demand.
Easy application ascent.
Simple system demand.
Lack of informations security and virus menaces
Data handiness and hazard of informations loss
Suitable for utmost big companies.
Tailor the application to outdo tantrum concern environment and maintain contractor ‘s ain concern manner.
Large sum and long term cost.
Bought and keep by contractor companies.
Short footings cost and cut down out-sourcing.
Security guarantee and maintenance by in-house proficient staff.
Require standby and supervising of in-house proficient staff. ( long term cost )
Table 2. 2: Problem of acceptance building undertaking direction system
( Infusion from: Chan and Leung, 2004 )
Fee-based Project Management Service
Fee-based undertaking direction service provides ready-made direction system for all users ( little contractor company ) . Contractor able to pay up sensible charge of this system through on-line procurance from service supplier ( IT company ) who develop this system. Contractor can bask this direction service via direct on-line purchase of user history without requires liaise with service supplier. However, commercially available off-the shelf undertaking direction package is really expensive and can be afforded merely by big undertaking direction ( PM ) and building houses ( Salem and Mohanty, 2008 ) .
Ready-made service system supply standard public presentation where does non let user to amend or add on any map harmonizing to their existing direction practise. Small contractor company necessitate to upload their company ‘s database and direction inside informations to online waiter which maintain and control by service supplier. Operation and status of service supplier becomes the hazard to the user such as possible of concern close down or service expiration. Therefore, little contractor who adopt this service will confront direct loss of company database.
With respect to Gidado ( 1996 ) mentioned that smaller package is cheaper but is unable to work out major undertaking on undertaking monitoring and control that are demanded by specific companies and is besides non conformable and customisation. This sort of ready-made package tools are non seen as a beginning of competitory border, since others can obtain it every bit good ( FIATECH, 2004 cited in Salem and Mohanty, 2008 ) .
Built-it-yourself solutions require high cost to run and keep this system. Medium size contractor require spend high initial cost to use external programme to orient the best fit direction system to contractor and long term of care cost for extra IT section to good maintain of this system public presentation.
Web-enabled package is favoured direction system for big building house in Malaysia. Large building house afford to pay the high initial cost and available of in-house IT or package section to transport out the long term care work. Most of the big company are public listed, public listed company require the blessing or flyover from stockholders to pass this high initial cost.
Users who recommend this web-enabled system shall turn to the inquiry on economic value of ICMS and barrier from stockholders. Shareholder position will see the cost effectivity of this system as highly expensive and small return on investing. This besides includes the issue of chances cost of non utilizing ICMS for their company.
Harmonizing to Becerik ( 2005 ) , it is cumbrous and dearly-won to secure a package and experiment with it in order to optimize it for a given house or undertaking. Molenaar and Songer ( 2001 ) said the disconnected nature of administration and operations of houses within the building industry besides make it harder for package sellers to estimate a common set of characteristics or tools to integrate in their existing package applications.
B ) Resistance to Change
Certain group of contractor ‘s company members refuse the execution of ICMS due to the ground deficiency of enthusiasm on new engineering
Antique and inflexible staffs refuse to accept the new engineering. They oppugn the public presentation of ICMS and insist maintain company ‘s traditional direction practise. As mentioned by Murray and Lai ( 2001 ) , it is by and large known that whereas specializers, ever the younger people who dominate information engineering, i.e. directors, who tend to be older, are frequently loath IT users. They worry the capable of supervising characteristic from the new engineering will take topographic point their function in the company. ICMS allow contractors to salvage up manpower on monitoring and coverage work which may cut down the range of work and work load of director from each section. ICMS become a menace and possible of retrenchment apply to them.
Refer to Dossick and Sakagami ( 2008 ) stress the engineering should keep dependable and easy for implement. Users will abandon the system for another procedure that is more dependable. Peoples are similar H2O: they find the way of least opposition. Project squad members feel uncomfortable utilizing the system within 4 hours, they will abandon the package to return back to the old manner of making materials.
Following Figure 2.1: Maslow ‘s ( 1943 ) Hierarchy of demands is characterised by 5 simple beds of pyramid Physiological demands. Harmonizing to this theory, individual who achieved degree of Love and belongingness will miss of enthusiasm towards acceptance of new direction engineering like ICMS. Contractor ‘s staff in this degree see as comfort zone since they already achieved more than basic demands including safety and security in their life. They prefer more on household relationship, deficiency of motive to accomplish upper degree. Therefore, this group of people refuse to larn and use new engineering to their on the job life.
Love and belongingness
Figure 2. 1: Hierarchy of Needs ( Maslow, 1943 )
C ) Creates More Work for Employees and Service Provides
Sun Tzu ‘s Art of War is a celebrated antediluvian book for Chinese classical warfare schemes. These ancient warfare rules have been applied in current strategic and concern direction for Malaysia edifice building industry.
“ Precise cognition of ego and precise cognition of the menace leads to triumph ” popular and most favour scheme in Malaysia edifice building industry. ICMS become the new engineering aid contractors recognise company internal operation exactly. ICMS chief undertaking is to respond rapidly during integrate database from distant site and present monitoring consequence right. The cardinal points of ICMS functional demand are fast and accurate. Contractors able refer and feedback the consequence of budget monitoring from base on balls undertaking. Contractors learn from old error and increase the opportunity to win stamp from client.
Refer to following programme at Figure 2.2, the application of Poliance Anticipated Report ( ACR ) deliver a comprehensive web-based system for user to place budget and cost minutess include range paperss, contracts and fluctuation orders. Users able explore every undertaking ‘s budget and cost line points through cost-codes allotment that possible to dislocations of cost-items make extended usage of Poliance Hierachical Coding characteristics as undermentioned Figure 2.3.
Figure 2. 2: The Anticipated Cost Report ( ACR ) is the drumhead position of all budget and cost minutess with Hyperlinks to interactively bore down into elaborate minutess ( Meridian System, 2010 )
Issue arise while dividing cost into elaborate dislocation through many different budget positions. Users affront trouble to divide preliminaries disbursals for different component. Conventional pattern ever lump up different component under one sub-contract, but ICMS require specific cost-breakdown for each component as refer to below Figure 2.4 has create troubles for users. For illustration, client award Electrical Services, Security, CCTV and Card Access ; and Air-Conditioning & A ; Mechanical Ventilation together under one Nominated Sub-Contract.
Figure 2. 4: Each contract can hold multiple line points in the agenda of values. Each line point can be split into multiple cost histories from the budget direction application ( Meridian Systems, 2010 )
Figure 2. 3: Hierarchy of codifications and analyse fiscal information in many different position
In this instance, contractor unable identify preliminaries and exact rate point for the above mentioned M & A ; E plants due to ground of preliminaries cost portion under one sub-contract, rate point besides become less accuracy. M & A ; E contractor able to finish the above occupation with lesser cost comparison with awarded to different sub-contractor for each M & A ; E component plants. The ground because M & A ; E contractor can salvage the mobilization cost, manpower, works and machinery disbursals and others rental or charges through the work coordination and logistics among one sub-contractor themselves at undertaking site. Therefore, contractor unable interruption into item by mentioning this database for future mention for future stamp or others monitor intent.
In order to obtain the accurate information for budget monitoring intent, ICMS require users to capture budget and cost by refer to the dividing cost groupings into consecutive degrees that turn up into comprehensive dislocation, alternatively of conventional pattern to chunk up same trade and class for the same sub-contractors. By refer to the ICMS pattern, cost-allocation for formwork, concrete and steel saloon plants should present individually but conventional pattern merely award to one sub-contract if the three sub-contracts decide to present to the same contractors.
Therefore, user force to divide the contract into three different by separate the drawings, preliminaries and sub-contracts into three sets alternatively of one. Indirectly, the work load and administrative cost for ICMS users has increased.
Figure 2. 5: Within a plan, let user to bore down into specific undertaking to acquire an instant fiscal image. Poliance provides powerful prediction of future budget and cost alterations ( Meridian Systems, 2010 )
Figure 2. 6: Poliance uses range paperss to pull off the budget development procedure. The range paperss can besides be used to pull off support beginnings that contribute budget money to an overall plan ( Meridian Systems, 2010 ) .
D ) Lack of Appropriate Laws and Regulations
Compare with traditional contractual pattern, ICMS is deficiency of appropriate Torahs and ordinances in Malaysia edifice building industry. ICMS users concern about the alteration of regulative environment. Current contractual pattern that preserves traditional methods for accomplishing legal admissibility: although statute law to back up engineering may be, it has non been adopted by the building industry within its current contractual patterns, and therefore, the usage of ICT is non lawfully valid in current conditions ( Raiden et al. 2004 ) .
These introduce direction system require acknowledgment of cogency from legislators, research establishments and professional organic structures. Malaysia edifice building industry has no proviso to recognition ICMS as an official contract, which are non linked with traditional contracts. Rezgui and Zarli ( 2006 ) stated the official paperss are officially submitted on paper based although produced electronically. Legal admissibility is entirely restricted of a handwritten signature on a paper hardcopy exercising. No uncertainty, ICMS has become an excess cost to the building industry.
Digital signatures use for the intent of avoid possible differences and verify of the ICMS understanding. ICMS is an electronic medium, those informations are easier to change and alter. This has become a stumbling block of usage of ICMS in Malaysia edifice building industry. As mentioned by Deng et Al. ( 2001 ) when alteration, revision of drawings or instructions need to be in difficult transcript signifier confirmed with Architect ‘s chop or signature and the reception of the drawings be acknowledged by the contractors in composing. Therefore directing these paperss electronically can non finish these indorsement processs.
2.2 Identify And Gain Insight Into The Strength And Weaknesses Of ICMS
A ) Provide Clear Lines of Responsibilities and Authority
It becomes really of import for interchanging information within working environment in recent old ages. Construction Industry is mutualist and involves big figure of participants, information, coordination and direction plants ( Chan and Leung, 2004 ) .
Construction procedure involves different functions where atomization and coordination among assorted participants throughout the building procedure to transport out hard undertaking among assorted participants. The exchange of information between major participants should keep effectual communicating to guarantee no misinterpretation or deficiency of information cause hold in the completion of undertakings ( Chan and Leung, 2004 ) .
In Malaysia edifice building industry, bulk undertaking members of contractor houses remain illegibility on their range of plants. It is common for a contractor house to cover with different on the job civilization, several sort of working paper format and criterion of direction manner consequently. Issue arise when alteration of direction degree, new comer will claim his subsidiary follow his manner to finish the undertaking including the direction system.
Multi-standard direction beginning from the entryway of new staff, they lead their civilization and direction practise from bing company and mixed up with current company. Although the company provide the practise enchiridion, still a tough occupation for contractor to supervise and guarantee his staffs follows the original direction system consequently. ICMS characteristic able to show the equal clear lines of duty and authorization, rigorous control and organizational cheques and balance ( Morris, 1983 ) to better interface direction in undertakings. Harmonizing to Rezgui and Zarli ( 2006 ) , ICT tends to be invasive and persons need to constantly adapt to uninterrupted debut of new emerging engineerings in the workplace.
ICMS users have their user ID and single watchwords which determine the restriction and authorization of users to entree and update the needed information expeditiously harmonizing to the place and function of users in the company. As O’Brien ( 2000 ) mentioned that, system accessible by authorized users, who can by physically different administrations, supplying a centralized, dependable agencies of conveying and hive awaying undertaking information. It clarifies the flow of paperss information and addition visibleness of undertaking demand and duties ( David Chua and Godinot, 2006 ) . Rezgui and Zarli ( 2006 ) besides stated the undertaking best patterns and know-how reside head of persons, and are available, at best, in the paperss stored/archived on company intranets.
It is possible to present a undertaking hierarchy into the system, which allows paperss or countries of the undertaking to be restricted to merely persons at certain degrees of duty, senior status, etc ( Nitithamyong and Skibniewski, 2006 ) . Therefore, ICMS becomes the direction tools to guarantee all companies members work under the same and standardize direction system. It is a important mention for users to transport their day-to-day work harmonizing to the system demands, ICMS will halt the users to go on their occupation when incorrect measure or deficiency of processs and later supply counsel for users back to the right method.
Besides that, ICMS provides chances to specify interfaces and division of duties among team members, users will gain the greater answerability of public presentation and promote higher degrees of committedness to the undertaking. Workloads for contractor companies achieve balance for every staff under transparence division of duties. Workload balance for every staff can cut down the possibility of occupation burnout ; capable or industrious staffs will recognize and appreciate by company.
B ) Administration Structure
Administration construction consists of work specialization, departmentalisation, concatenation of bid, span of control, centralization and decentralization, and formalization ( Daft, 1998 ) . ICMS users have their ain user ID and personal watchwords. All users are subdivided into separate undertakings harmonizing to their degree of accomplishment. Users able to finish their occupation successfully through focal point on work specialization.
Departmentalisation perform good where users are grouped together through recognise of maps demand and public presentation through ICMS. ICMS characteristic provide transparence of undertaking demand and duties which allow users understand their authorization and answerability of public presentation in the administration and do the ironss of bid rigidness.
In recent old ages, contractors try to wider their span of control within the administration construction. A director can keep close control by maintaining the span of control up to five or six employees ( Urwick, 1944 ) . ICMS as the proctor tools which enhance ability of directors to manage wider span of control when employees face job including their day-to-day assignments. Wider span of control allow contractors to cut down manpower and disbursals on employee preparation.
In contractor administrations, it is problem for top direction to do all the determinations. ICMS characteristic let top direction authorise determination doing to lower-level, this allow lower degree make certain determination doing harmonizing to their degree and place. ICMS characteristic will restrict authorization of users by recognise the user ID follow their administration degree pre-setting in this direction system. Therefore, decentralised administrations allow users to work out jobs rapidly and efficiency on determination devising.
C ) Geographically Different
As strategic direction mentioned by Sadler et.al ( 2003 ) , the “ dead of distance ” where working twenty-four hours has no significance when concern can cover and procedure in anyplace, anytime via progress of communicating device such as electronic mail, voice mail and facsimile transmittals can be sent or received informations require easy with no clip and distance spread.
Another issue discussed by O’Brien and Al-Soufi ( 1993 ) , building industry is characterised by geographical and functionally. Geographic atomization go on where most of the building undertakings are based on impermanent coactions of proprietors, designers, contractors, sub-contractors and providers. They are normally geographically different in locations of the undertakings and the operational premises ( Chan and Leung, 2004 ) .
Yan ( 2002 ) described that, edifice and building industry is labour intensive, traditional and antique. Such manual features can make lengthily procedure and processs in undertaking disposal, taking to lose control, addition cost and low productiveness.
Construction undertakings involved big sum of providers and sub-contractors in assorted trade in different phases. There is ever difficult to supervise and organize those multi-layered sub-contractors ‘ work advancement and building merchandises with pieces by pieces. Therefore, building undertakings ever experience late bringing and over budget. Meanwhile edifice contractors are confronting the consequences in fiscal loss and hapless repute.
Yan ( 2002 ) discussed that, ICMS provide the solution where required to better the information flow among project participants and to heighten undertaking logistics direction. This online building direction system would let each undertaking site in multi-locations to describe their current up undertaking advancement to head office by cut downing the traveling between undertaking site and heard office.
Indirectly, geographical interfaces allow chief company locate at the scheme location such as Putrajaya Cyberjaya. Putrajaya Cyberjaya is the new location centralise for Malaysia authorities office to cut down demand of commercial edifice in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia. Such sort of decentralise solution provide low land cost and lease of office block disbursals which able to cut down the disbursals of contractors and remain capital fight. Meanwhile, company staffs can off from traffic jam and easiness for public conveyance travel distance.
ICMS best patterns allow contractors stored/archived their certifications on company intranets server. This paperless system require users to hive away their softcopy into ICMS waiter hardware which require less storage country comparison with traditional certification driven system. ICMS allow users to follow back bing completed undertakings rapidly and easier with lone manus chink require. Unlike traditional storage method, contractors usually archived their completed undertaking to company shop which located far from caput office since there are limited infinites. This become the another method for contractors to salvage their disbursals on lease of storage country.
D ) Transparency of Financial and Project Analysis
The information procedure of ICMS consists of every undertaking life rhythm for the house. With respect to Dias ( 2004 ) the direction of the full rhythm of the development of building undertaking should see from origin, design and planning to project start-up, sometimes, to the terminal of the defect liability period ( normally 2 to 3 old ages within Malaysia building industry ) .
As old mentioned under Chapter 2, Figure 2: Park used of ICMS monitoring on undertaking hard currency flow define the work flow of ICMS on budget monitoring. ICMS able to capture the full undertaking disbursal harmonizing to the cost-codes allotment for every sub-contract plants and present transparence in the fiscal analysis for each single undertakings. Besides supervising intent, ICMS users able to obtain immediate consequence and updated fiscal analysis automatically without farther manual informations input require. ICMS can play the function as complete presentation format for outlooks of different stakeholders of the company such as stockholders, investors, supplier and employees, and directors.
Companies ‘ stockholders and investors concern about the dividends and capital growing for public listed companies. Supplier and employees able to supervise the stuff bringing position and outstanding stocks require for furnish.
Table 2.3 explains workflow of stuff and machinery analysis in ICMS which assists each section ‘s troughs to supervise their undertakings closely.
Material Requisition ( MR )
Project Team, Logistic, Store, Purchasing, Contract ( QS ) and Account
Project Team subject material requisition signifier which include the stuff or machinery require to finish the sub-contract plants.
Both Logistic and Store Departments to look into and corroborate the handiness of stuff or machinery on site.
Buying Department to order and set up the stuff or machinery bringing to site harmonizing to the petition on MR signifier.
Contract and Account Departments maintain in position to MR signifier.
Purchase Order ( PO )
Buying, Contract ( QS ) and Account
Buying Department to publish P.O to Supplier after confirm no handiness of stock or machinery on undertaking site.
Contract and Account Departments remain keep in position to P.O
Delivery Order ( D.O )
Project Team, Logistic, Store, Purchasing, Contract ( QS ) and Account
Logistic section to have stuff or machinery from provider while delivered to site.
Store section return over and hive away the stuff or machinery on site shop.
Buying, Contract and Account Departments maintain in position to D.O.
Good Receive Notes ( GRN )
Project Team, Store, Purchasing, Contract ( QS ) and Account
Store Department to publish stuff or machinery to Project Team.
Buying, Contract and Account Departments maintain in position with G.R.N.
Buying, Contract ( QS ) and Account
Buying and Contract Departments to attest Invoice.
Account Department to fix payment for provider.
Table 2. 3: Elementss in Material and Machinery Workflow Analysis
( Beginning: Grand Victory Marketing, 2009 )
With refers to Postpone 1, Item 1 to 5 shows the sequence of work and sections involve to organize and supervise stuffs and machineries workflow on undertaking site. Every section should update the latest information to ICMS harmonizing to the cost-codes allocate for each sub-contract plants. Logistic and Store sections to guarantee the balance stuffs and machineries on site are same with the measures shown in ICMS.
Besides that, Logistics and Store directors to help Contract Department to attest Invoice claim from provider. The ICMS consequence of entire measures, description for stuff and machinery on undertaking site should tally with the measures of Material Requisition ( M.R. ) / Purchase Order ( P.O ) / Delivery Order ( D.O ) / Good Receive Notes ( G.R.N ) .
Clear vision of Financial and Project Analysis provided by ICMS can cut down the issue of corruptness happen among contractor ‘s staffs. These linkage among workflow and hard currency flow linkage of all sections allow users to traverse cheque and supervise the whole system. Any disagreement in between rate point during purchase order and bill, measures different among purchase order, bringing order and bill will convey to inquiry.
Tocopherol ) Comply With 5-S Aims and Requirements
5-S is the formalistic technique by Nipponese for the workplace administration methodological analysis that uses a list of five Nipponese words which are seiri, seiton, seiso, seiketsu and shitsuke. Professor Sam Ho, laminitis chair of Hong Kong 5-S association has improved and defined it footings in English and developed the universe ‘s first 5-S Audit checklist which was used as first measure beyond Total Quality Management.
5-S is a basic principle, systematic attack for productiveness, internal and external quality and safety betterment of all systems and procedure. Primary stages of 5-S consists of Structuralise, Systematise, Sanitise, Standardise and Self-discipline. ICMS become the of import tools promote 5-S for constructing building industry in Malaysia. This multi-organisation requires large-scale betterment on productiveness, quality and effectivity which is difficult to accomplish. ICMS able to offer rapid solution for contractor to accomplish large-scale betterment through the followerss:
Structuralise: Stratification direction and covering with the causes.
ICMS assist the users to accomplish Structuralise through the electronic informations transmittal with paperless in their workplace. Files located at one Centre of ICMS waiter, these allow users to cut down the alteration of storage need things, extra occupation to throw away or return things which are non needed. By mentioning Alshawi and Ingirige ( 2003 ) INMANCO instance survey, the electronic papers direction system able to cut down the administrative costs by cut downing papers managing work and distribution to multiple parties. Cost nest eggs chiefly from non holding to publish drawing or specifications. The instance survey on 30 hebdomads retail building undertaking shows a economy of a ?58,130 direct cost salvaging on a ?5 million affecting of INMANCO. There is other possible cost salvaging through cut down of errors and reworks of everyone in the undertaking squad. Direct cost economy shows at the following Table 2.4 item dislocation:
Printing costs for undertaking drawings
Postage costs for undertaking drawings
Copying costs and undertaking specifications
Postage costs and undertaking specifications
Table 2. 4: Direct Cost Saving Breakdown of INMANCO instance survey
Systematise: Functional storage and extinguishing the demand to look for things.
Budget monitoring system makes clear the disbursals for all sub-contract plants harmonizing to the cost-codes allotment, linkage between all back uping paperss including designated name & A ; topographic point without inordinate stuffs. Refer Alshawi and Ingirige ( 2003 ) web-enabled direction package able velocity up the distribution of certification and tenderers ‘ communications. This direction system keeping all current and pass version under one centralise location to extinguish the hazard of losing of import files. ICMS allow users to retrieval soft-copy paperss from waiter within 30 seconds without require manual handling and storage from users. Personal user ID and watchwords enhance the security and bound of authorization for users to transport out their undertakings. All completed and printed paperss will demo individual in charge, clip and day of the month of completion for the easiness of question.
Sanitise: Cleanings review and grade of Cleanliness.
Adoption of ICMS does non necessitate cleansing and clean up up plants, minus down the disbursals and clip for cleaning plants. ICMS restored database to it topographic point everything where it belongs harmonizing to the cost-codes allotment automatically.
Standardise: Ocular direction and 5-S standardization.
Limitation and authorization of different user ID and watchwords as the fool-proofing patterns, denial user insert informations faulty or incorrect location.
Self-discipline: Habit formation and a disciplined workplace.
ICMS has become portion of the agenda for users. In order to finish their occupations, users require follow harmonizing to the ICMS process. It besides complies with 5-S aims and demands without overlook or wantonnesss the stairss.
F ) Ease of Account Audit
There are common processs to hold internal and external audit among Malaysia contractor houses. Contractors sometimes will confront the job to set up back uping informations and paperss for hearer to scrutinize their company. Some contractors have bad pattern ignore the audit demand during their normal on the job twenty-four hours, merely redress at the last minute before audit enter.
Contractors require spend extra clip and excess cost instruct in order to handover the back uping paperss to auditor and these cause contractors lose their chances cost and clip. Mobilisation cost of necessary paperss from undertaking site office transportation back to caput office. Some contractors are even worse ; they merely arrange paperss and justification during enquiry of insufficient of certifications from hearer.
Another issue arise during handover of inordinate certification which unrelated for audit intent. This can minor down the opportunities of confidential information unmasking to others.
Under nowadays of ICMS, let audit plants complete on mark day of the month without extra clip and disbursals bear by contractors including the opportunities of confidential information unmasking to others which unrelated for audit intent. As old discussed the strengths of ICMS such as geographically different, transparence of fiscal and undertaking analysis and comply with 5-S aims and demands allow contractors to simplified procedure of history audit. Alshawi and Ingirige ( 2003 ) INMANCO instance survey did mentioned that the possible economy costs by cut downing site visit and travelling clip.
A ) Flexibility of Task Access
ICMS provided with the map of recognise user ID and watchwords allow contractor to restrict down authorization and clear of duties for every staffs in company. Some contractors facing challenge when sub-ordinate on long leave, superior will non be able handover for other subsidiaries to finish the undertaking temporarily. They have to bespeak the aid from IT section to amend bid and give permission for other users to finish the undertaking of absent staff. There is an alternate solution but problem for superior to transport out the subsidiary undertaking since their administration degree is higher, they able to rectify and amend subsidiary plants. Superior should anticipate to cover with more of import mission in the company.
There is deficiency of flexibleness for ICMS users to cover with this issue. Unlike traditional method, hardcopy and information is easy to obtain manually and superior merely require administer the undertaking for others subordinate to finish consequently.
B ) Trouble of Work Away From Office
Majority contractor prefer ICMS as usage web-based direction system to minor down the opportunities of company confidential informations expose to foreigners. Normally, contractor will merely let company computing machine plus to put in ICMS usage package. Therefore, users are unable to show the informations to others people, merely directors and supra will supply laptop semen with usage package. The whole administration security being reinforces through implement of ICMS usage package solution.
However, this solution creates another failing of ICMS to the stakeholders. Suppliers and sub-contractors will confront the job during informations input, they need to bespeak and finish installed the ICMS package so merely let to continue their advancement claim. Most of the terminal users unable to transport through their plants at place, issue arise when users attend outpost meeting or site visit.