Energy System Training for Sports Essay

Every human being’s movement produces energy. This body’s movement which causes the production of energy is through certain pathways called energy pathways. Let’s take an example. If a person is walking, here the intensity is very important, if it is a gentle walk, he will go on for hours without much exhaustion. Although, if he is running, in this case the intensity is much greater than the former case considered, hence he will not be able to continue for a long period of time. If he goes with the same intensity, it will only last for a short period of time. It is very important for us, humans to know that the intensity of our activities can be controlled through training exercises which will be mentioned later in the essay.

There are four basic energy pathways which help us understand energy production, body movement, aerobic and anaerobic energy systems of the body. Following are the energy pathways: ATP-CP and LA, LA-02, and 02.

ATP-CP
LA
LA-O²

ATP-CP stands for Adenosine Triphosphate. It is a chemical compound which consists of three molecules of phosphorous. It is very important to note here that, this ATP is a raw form of energy. This is produced with the break down of various cells in the body. This break down which causes production of energy is usually taking place in the muscles of the body. Energy is released when the molecule is broken. ATP is soon converted into ADP. The difference of the ATP and ADP is of an extra phosphate molecule in ATP.

CP stands for Creatine Phosphate. This allows the break down of the Adenosine Triphosphate molecules in the body. Creatine Phosphate and Adenosine Diphosphate together form Adenosine Triphosphate.

LA stands for Lactic Acid. This lactic acid is a result of the a fatigue process. When we exercise a lot continuously for a couple of hours, without a break; or we are exercising after a month hiatus; our body is not used to the excessive exercise or any exercise in the second scenario. Hence our muscles start aching. This pain is caused due to the glucose produced in the muscles that could not be broken down. This excessive glucose is what causes the pain, also known as the fatigue process. Now, the protons that are produced due to this process restrict the individual from further exercising.

O2 is a molecule which consists of two atoms of oxygen. This molecule assists the body in performing functions. The movement which involves oxygen is called aerobic energy system. The energy system that does not involve oxygen is called anaerobic energy system.

These energy pathways are used for a specific time period. As soon as the time period elapses, that respective energy pathway is no more used and the other energy pathway starts to function.

ADP is produced by the contraction of the muscles. When the ADP and CP combine, they produce ATP. The CP is primarily stored in the muscles of the body and is used to make ATP in the body ATP in the muscles is from the glucose produced in the body. The glucose is primarily present in the blood stream which goes from one muscle to another providing glucose for movement. Glucose as mentioned is in the bloodstream although another component like glucose is glycogen. It is very important not to mix the two terms: glycogen and glucagons. They both are very different. The glycogen is broken down into a simpler compound and stored in the muscles. Complete oxidation is required in the body after exercise. If the oxidation is not provided, the body undergoes a process that has already been mentioned earlier. This process is called fatigue process.  (Blakey, 1992)

All the above mentioned energy systems required in the production of energy start as soon as we start exercising. The intensity of the energy produced is pretty much dependent on the intensity with which we exercise.

It has already been mentioned above that there are three sources of the production of ATP: Phosphate system, Lactic Acid system and Aerobic system. The actic acid system is also known as the Anaerobic system. The anaerobic and aerobic system will now be discussed further.

The anaerobic system takes place in the absence of oxygen. This energy system operates in a way that the pyruvate molecules that are produced during the process of glycolysis (breakdown of glucose) is converted into lactate. Now, the pyruvate molecules are converted into lactate by an enzyme called lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).  This process takes place to make sure that there are two molecules of ATP produced in the body. These two molecules are produced after every one molecule of glucose has been consumed by the body. The glucose is later converted back to pyruvate for the production of two ATP molecules. This ATP that is then produced in the body helps in the higher intensity exercise that was mentioned earlier in the essay. Although these are higher intensity exercises but as soon as they reach a level where the lactate starts to release toxicants in the body, the exercise can no longer be continued and hence the muscles undergo fatigue.

The aerobic system that is then to be discussed is nothing but all the processes that involve the presence of oxygen while they are taking place throughout the body. The purpose of the aerobic system is quite different than that of an anaerobic system in the body. The anaerobic energy system as mentioned earlier creates two molecules of ATP. But the aerobic systems in the body produce thirty eight molecules of ATP in the body from each glucose molecule that is broken down. The ATP is broken down in the body to produce ADP. This ADP that is produced in the body is also accompanied by some phosphate compounds and a lot of energy. These were some of the main differences of aerobic and an aerobic energy systems taking place in the body.

The aerobic and anaerobic energy systems of the body are also known as aerobic and anaerobic respirations. The aerobic respiration of the body consists of the following stages:

Glycolysis
Krebs Cycle
Oxydative Phosphorylation
Glycolysis is the first process that takes place. It produces two ATP molecules in the body. This process takes place in the cytoplasm of the cells of the body. Apart from the ATP molecules, two pyruvate molecules are also produced in the body as a result of this process.

The Krebs Cycle is the next in line. This is the second stage where there is one ATP molecule produced and one carbon dioxide molecule produced. The krebs cycle is repeated for every glucose molecule that is produced in the body. Hence all the by products of this process are doubled. The pryruvate molecules are soon converted into Acetyl coenzyme. The krebs cycle phase takes place in the mitochondria of the cells of the body.

The last step of the the aerobic cycle is the oxidative phosphorylation. This stage produces ATP like any other of the two stages that have been mentioned earlier. The only differences is in the quantity that is produced. This stage produces the maximum amount of ATP that can be produced in the body. This cycle produces thirty four ATP molecules in the body. This process is called oxidative phosphorylation because oxygen is used in the last step and hydrogen is released ( hence it is called oxidative ), an extra molecule of phosphate is added to ADP making it ATP (hence it is called phoshorylation). (Blakey, 1992)

This cycle takes place on the cristae of the cell. The infoldings on the mitochondria are termed as cristae where all the energy is stored. Mitochondria is termed as the power house of the cell. The FADH molecules that are produced during the krebs cycle decrease the level of energy. The NADH passes through the electron transport chain to form ATP. This ATP that is produced in the body consists of three molecules. Later in this process water is produced as a byproduct.

 The real question that is to be considered is which system, aerobic or anaerobic, takes place in the body and when. Well, both the systems take place at a particular time. It all depends on which system dominates the other. By this I mean that in the absence of oxygen the anaerobic system will certainly dominate the aerobic system and vise versa.

It is very important to know about the training systems of the body. I will now associate the energy pathways that we have discussed earlier, to the various exercises. The exercises that can be performed, depends on the intensity of the exercise and the coping level of the athlete. It is highly essential for the athlete to achieve the goal of the training. The goal of the training is to make the most of the activity that is being preformed. Efficiency is the most essential part of the entire training. During an exercise there are two main systems in the body that are at work, one is the energy system of the body and the other is the muscular system of the body.

It is very important for the athletes to understand that there ar certain limitations of the training systems. The training systems are arranged in a specific sequence. If the sequence is not followed the ultimate goal that is to be achieved might not be achieved. It is highly crucial to remember the fact that all the energy systems and the muscular systems start and continue to run at the same time. This energy system depends on the intensity of the exercise and the fitness level of the athlete. This then pressurizes the aerobic and anaerobic systems to operate at the same intensity as that of the energy system itself.

 During these training systems, exercises, if the oxygen is required in the body then it is an aerobic respiration that will take place in the body. If there is no oxygen required in the body, then it is an anaerobic respiration. If the lactic acid is produced in the body then it is an anaerobic lactic energy system. If there is no lactic acid that is to be produced then it is an anaerobic alactic energy system.

It is not necessary to use only one system during he training session. Two or combination of two systems can be used. The entire training program is designed to make sure that the energy production is at its maximum and is efficient.

Let’s consider the aerobic training system in the body. This would certainly involve oxygen. It develops the cardiovascular system of the body; hence it is highly efficient and important. It also helps the athletes to recover the muscle aches produced by the production of lactic acid in the body due to intensive exercises. But during the aerobic training system, the body does not produce the fatigue waste products such as lactic acid. This is because it only involves low intensity exercises. (Baechle, 2000)

It is important in the recovery from the fatigueness of all the other exercises. It helps in the functioning of the heart and the lungs. Here it is necessary to consider the presence of oxygen during the aerobic training systems. The duration of this training exercise requires at least 20 minutes. This training can either be done all together or with breaks in between. The examples of aerobic training systems are as follows:

·         Jogging

·         Running

·         Walking

It is important to consider her that all the jogging and the walking that is to be performed is of a low intensity. If we push it to a high intensity, then it will no longer be an aerobic exercise and the byproducts of the process will cause muscles aches.

The Anaerobic training system involves a process of energy production in the absence of oxygen. The anaerobic training systems are less efficient. Not only has this but it also produced a lot of lactic acid. This lactic acid is the result of the high intensity exercises. During this process, it is necessary for the body to burn the excessive carbohydrates to avoid this form happening. The removal of lactic acid from the body is not done instantly. It take about an hour for it to remove it. When the athlete starts with the high intensive training system is when the lactic acid’s production is at its peak. After some time, the production of the lactic acid decreases, but still persists. This anaerobic exercise is because of a lot of intervals taken during the exercises.

The symptoms of anaerobic training system is

·         When one is having a difficulty in breathing.

·         When one can not exert more effort during the exercise.

·         When one undergoes a lot of muscle tensions and aches.

The anaerobic exercise pushes the person to his or her limit of exercising. The anaerobic training system can not be achieved without the aerobic training system as the base of the entire exercise. The examples of anaerobic training systems are as follows:

·         Jumping

·         Weight lifting

·         Training at various speeds

·         Training with intervals

·         Sprints

·         Training with a specified pace for a long period of time.

Along with the energy systems that take place in the body, there is a lot of muscular activity that takes place along with it. This muscular activity is the result of the muscular strength of the body. This muscular strength is dependent on the ability of the body to exert force and an object. this factor of strength is very important when it comes to any activity that an athlete performs. The strength information that is provided by the coaches is very important, they consist of specific exercise patterns in a sequence. Without the sequence he goal of the training system can not be obtained. There are two types of strength:

1.      maximum strength

2.      elastic strength

3.      strength endurance

The maximum strength is when the muscle movement is in such a position in which the maximum amount of energy is produced and highest level of force is exerted. The maximum strength determines how fast an athlete can move. This type of strength comes in handy when resistance is to be overcome.

Elastic strength is very different from maximum strength. It involves the source of power. Maximum strength was the how fast an athlete can move. But elastic strength involves the speed at which the muscles are contracted and moved. This includes: jumping in most cases.

Strength endurance is the ability of the muscle to exert yet more force even when the muscles are quite fatigued. For example, one performs sit-ups way past the level  of exhaustion.

Strength can be developed through exercise, weight lifting and resistance. The weight lifting should be avoided when it comes to young athletes. Exercises that involve body weight and circuit training will help the athletes develop their desired strengths. There are certain strength training exercises that are developed for the athletes to increase their strength while resisting. There are two types of strength development programs:

The general strength development includes exercises which are to give the athletes extra strength to the muscles that have to perform certain activities. The specific strength development is for building flexibility and strong muscles which can overcome an injury in a short time period.

Some of the principles of flexibility are as follows:

while doing the exercises, stretch slowly
take full control over your body and let go easily and slowly
inhale and exhale while you stretch and let go
do not hold your breathe through the entire cycle
start off with slight tension in your muscles and then to a stage of no tension in your muscles
once in a position of tension, hold on for a couple of seconds

After stretching, start with the muscle balance training. This muscle balance exercise consists of training both the front and the back muscles of your body during the period of enhancing strength exercises. This exercise involves working on the biceps and the triceps. This is very important in training the athletes to recover quickly and fully from injury.

It is highly important to note the order of the exercises and the selection of exercises. The order is important so that the athlete gets the most out of each exercise.  The exercises usually require a lot of mental power rather than physical power. This mental power includes full mental concentration during the exercises. Hence to have a perfect start the athletes are told to perform yoga for a couple of minutes before they start their exercise.

The athletes performing exercises that require the muscles to exert a lot of force during the work out are told to perform yoga and have a full mental concentration before starting their high intensive exercise. (Torota, 2002)

The strength and flexibility training sessions should not be performed on a daily basis, instead, they are to be performed alternatively so that the by product (lactic acid) of the anaerobic training system is avoided. The number and the order of the exercises should be changed every now and then. It is important for the athletes to rest between the sets.

It is important that all the athletes work on enhancing their strength during their work outs. The exercises that the athletes can do to enhance their strength, flexibility and reduce the time period of recovery are as follows:

sit ups
push ups
leg swings
jump and reach
trunk lifts
horizontal swings
leg raisers
triceps dip
mountain climbers
kangaroo hops
front and back eagle
kneeling overhead
standing overhead
standing chest past
standing one arm
standing side twists
Let’s take an example. All the sporting events that have been described above also include swimming, running etc where the pace is to remain constant. Like an energy which requires a fifty percent sprint from an ADP system also requires a fifty percent sprint form the glycolysis cycle. A 100 meter race is highly an aerobic system. But activities such as soccer and rugby have varying intensities. This is because the athlete does not have to run all the time after the ball, there are other play mates too. But the short sprints such as jogging etc have a constant intensity through out the work out. This kind of exercise and work out which involves standing still, running, jogging, and any exercise with a constant intensity is called maximal intermittent exercise. (Stone, 1984)

During a soccer game the energy systems that I mentioned earlier, all three of them are at work. Although the intensity varies from very high to a very low pace but all the three energy systems are used. It is pretty difficult to tell which energy system is most important and mostly used. This is because of the varying intensities and the varying time intervals during the exercises and work outs.
The soccer game has been investigated for this very reason. It was discovered that the change in the activity after some time by the player is the result of the varying intensities. On an average, an athlete changes the intensity of their work out, during the game, after every ninety seconds. This is the reason that the pattern of the entire soccer game is in terms of time. It consists of jogging and also walking. As soon as the ball gets near them and they have to kick, it involves running and extreme exertion of pressure. (Baechle, 2000)

During this time period, the athlete’s activity’s intensity varies from low to high. Hence aerobic and anaerobic energy systems, both take place.  The aerobic takes place when they are walking and jogging, whereas the anaerobic takes place when they are running. This allows the athletes to create energy at a high rate. It is used during high intensities of the sport.

From the above research we can easily make out the various patterns of energy that have been used and the time that has been required by each of the systems. Now, the importance of each energy system will be discussed.

We will now conclude all that has been discussed above. Primarily, the energy systems were explained in detail. There are four basic energy pathways which help us understand energy production, body movement, aerobic and anaerobic energy systems of the body. Following are the energy pathways: ATP-CP and LA, LA-02, and 02.

The production of energy and the fatigue process was then described in detail. ADP is produced by the contraction of the muscles. When the ADP and CP combine, they produce ATP. The CP is primarily stored in the muscles of the body and is used to make ATP in the body ATP in the muscles is from the glucose produced in the body. The glucose is primarily present in the blood stream which goes from one muscle to another providing glucose for movement. Glucose as mentioned is in the bloodstream although another component like glucose is glycogen. It is very important not to mix the two terms: glycogen and glucagons. They both are very different. The glycogen is broken down into a simpler compound and stored in the muscles. Complete oxidation is required in the body after exercise. If the oxidation is not provided, the body undergoes a process that has already been mentioned earlier. This process is called fatigue process. (Torota, 2002)

Then the differences between aerobic and anaerobic systems were discussed. The aerobic system that is then to be discussed is nothing but all the processes that involve the presence of oxygen while they are taking place throughout the body. The purpose of the aerobic system is quite different than that of  an anaerobic system in the body. The anaerobic as mentioned, creates two molecules of ATP. But the aerobic systems in the body produce thirty eight molecules of ATP in the body from each glucose molecule that is broken down. The ATP is broken down in the body to produce ADP. This ADP that is produced in the body is also accompanied by some phosphate compounds and a lot of energy. These were some of the main differences of aerobic and an aerobic energy systems taking place in the body.

The aerobic and anaerobic training systems were then described, associating each of them to sports and the activities that are performed every day. It is important to consider her that all the jogging and the walking that is to be performed is of a low intensity. If we push it to a high intensity, then it will no longer be an aerobic exercise and the byproducts of the process will cause muscles aches. (Stone, 1984)

The Anaerobic training system involves a process of energy production in the absence of oxygen. The anaerobic training systems are less efficient. Not only has this but it also produced a lot of lactic acid. This lactic acid is the result of the high intensity exercises. During this process, it is necessary for the body to burn the excessive carbohydrates to avoid this form happening. The removal of lactic acid from the body is not done instantly. It take about an hour for it to remove it. When the athlete starts with the high intensive training system is when the lactic acid’s production is at its peak. After some time, the production of the lactic acid decreases, but still persists. This anaerobic exercise is because of a lot of intervals taken during the exercises.

After that the various symptoms of anaerobic were described. This is then followed by the research done on soccer which include the varying intensities of pace and the change over from aerobic to anaerobic energy systems.

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