The following press release is an abridged version of John Dryden’s A Discourse Refering the Original and Progress of Satire ( 1693 ) . You must read this papers carefully.
There has been a long difference among the modem critics. whether the Romans derived their sarcasm from the Grecians. or foremost invented it themselves. Julius Scaliger. and Heinsius. are of the first sentiment ; Casaubon. Rigaltius. Dacier. and the publishing house of the Dauphin?s Juvenal. keep the latter. If we take sarcasm in the general meaning of the word. as it is used in all modem linguistic communications. for an invective. it is certain that it is about every bit old as poetry ; and though anthem. which are congratulationss of God. may be allowed to hold been before it. yet the calumny of others was non long after it. After God had cursed Adam and Eve in Paradise. the hubby and married woman excused themselves. by puting the incrimination on one another ; and gave a beginning to those connubial duologues in prose. which the poets have perfected in poetry. The 3rd chapter of Job is one of the first cases of this verse form in holy Scripture ; unless we will take it higher. from the latter terminal of the 2nd where his married woman advises him to cuss his Maker.
This original. I confess. is non much to the award of sarcasm ; but here it was nature. and that depraved ; when it became art. it bore better fruit. Merely we have learnt therefore much already. that jeers and revilings are of the growing of all states ; and. accordingly. that neither the Grecian poets borrowed from other people their art of inveighing. neither needed the Romans to take it from them. But. sing sarcasm as a species of poesy. here the war begins amongst the critics. Scaliger the male parent will hold it fall from Greece to Rome ; and derives the word sarcasm from satyrus. that assorted sort of animate being. or. as the ancients thought him. rural God. made up betwixt a adult male and a caprine animal ; with a human caput. hooked nose. sulking lips. a clump. or goiter. under the mentum. pricked ears. and unsloped horns ; the organic structure shagged with hair. particularly from the waist. and stoping in a caprine animal. with the legs and pess of that animal.
But Casaubon. and his followings. with ground. condemn this derivation ; and turn out. that from satyrus. the word satira. as it signifies a verse form. can non perchance fall. For satira is non decently a substantial. but an adjectival ; to which the word Ianx ( in English. a courser. or big platter ) is understood ; so that the Greek verse form made harmonizing to the manners of a lecher. and showing his qualities. must decently be called satyrical. and non satire. And therefore far ‘tis allowed that the Grecians had such verse forms ; but that they were entirely different in coinage from that to which the Romans gave the name of sarcasm.
This is what I have to state in general of sarcasm: merely. as Dacier has observed before me. we may take notice. that the word sarcasm is of more general meaning in Latin. than in Gallic. or English. For amongst the Romans it was non merely used for those discourses which decried frailty. or exposed folly. but for others besides. where virtuousness was recommended. But in our modem languages we use it merely to invective verse form. where the really name of sarcasm is formidable to those individuals who would look to the universe what they are non in themselves ; for in English to state sarcasm. is to intend contemplation. as we use that word in the worst sense ; or as the Gallic call it. more decently. medisance. In the unfavorable judgment of spelling. it ought to be with I and non with y. to separate its true derivation from satura. non from satyrus. And if this be so. so it is false spelled throughout this book ; for here it is written lecher ; which holding non considered at the first. I thought it non worth rectifying afterwards. But the Gallic are more nice. and ne’er spell it any other manner than sarcasm.
In a word. that former kind of sarcasm. which is known in England by the name of parody. is a unsafe kind of arm. and for the most portion improper. We have no moral right on the repute of other work forces. ‘Tis taking from them what we can non reconstruct to them. There are merely two grounds for which we may be permitted to compose parodies ; and I will non assure that they can ever warrant us. The first is retaliation. when we have been affronted in the same nature. or have been any ways notoriously abused. and can do ourselves no other reparation. And yet to cognize. that. in Christian charity. all discourtesies are to be forgiven. as we expect the similar forgiveness for those which we daily perpetrate against Almighty God. And this consideration has frequently made me tremble when I was stating our Saviour?s supplication ; for the apparent status of the forgiveness which we beg is the pardoning of others the discourtesies which they have done to us ; for which ground I have many times avoided the committee of that mistake. even when I have been notoriously provoked.
Let non this. my Godhead. base on balls for amour propre in me ; for it is truth. More libels have been written against me than about any adult male now populating ; and I had ground on my side. to hold defended my ain artlessness. I speak non of my poesy. which I have entirely given up to the critics: allow them utilize it as they please ; descendants. possibly. may be more favourable to me ; for involvement and passion will lie buried in another age. and fondness and bias be forgotten. I speak of my ethical motives. which have been sufficiently aspersed ; that merely kind of repute ought to be beloved to every honest adult male. and is to me. But let the universe informant for me. that I have been frequently desiring to myself in that peculiar ; I have rarely answered any abusive parody. when it was in my power to hold exposed my enemies ; and. being of course vindicative. have suffered in silence. and possessed my psyche in quiet.
Anything. though ne’er so small. which a adult male speaks of himself. in my sentiment. is still excessively much ; and therefore I will relinquish this topic. and continue to give the 2nd ground which may warrant a poet when he writes against a peculiar individual ; and that is. when he is become a public nuisance. All those. whom Horace in his Satires. and Persius and Juvenal have mentioned in theirs. with a trade name of opprobrium. are entirely such. ‘Tis an action of virtuousness to do illustrations of barbarous work forces. They may and ought to be upbraided with their offenses and follies ; both for their ain amendment. if they are non yet incorrigible. and for the panic of others. to impede them from falling into those outrageousnesss which they see are so badly punished in the individuals of others. The first ground was merely an alibi for retaliation ; but this 2nd is perfectly of a poet?s office to execute ; but how few parodists are at that place now populating. who are capable of this responsibility! When they come in my manner. ‘tis impossible sometimes to avoid reading them. But. good God! how distant they are. in common justness. from the pick of such individuals as are proper topic of sarcasm! And how small humor they bring for the support of their unfairness!
The weaker sex is their most ordinary subject ; and the best and fairest are certain to be the most badly handled. Amongst work forces. those who are prosperously unfair are entitled to a encomium ; but afflicted virtuousness is insolently stabbed with all mode of reproaches. No decency is considered. no unction omitted ; no venom is desiring. every bit far as obtuseness can provide it. For there is a ageless famine of humor ; a barrenness of good sense and amusement. The disregard of the readers will shortly set an terminal to this kind of scrabbling. There can be no pleasantry where there is no humor ; no feeling can be made where there is no truth for the foundation. To reason: they are like the fruits of the Earth in this unnatural season ; the maize which held up its caput is spoiled with richness ; but the greater portion of the crop is laid along. and small of good income and wholesome nutriment is received into the barns.
Therefore I have treated. in a new method. the comparing betwixt Horace. Juvenal. and Persius ; slightly of their peculiar mode belonging to all of them is yet staying to be considered. Persius was grave. and peculiarly opposed his gravitation to obscenity. which was the prevailing frailty in Nero?s tribunal. at the clip when he published his sarcasms. which was before that emperor fell into the surplus of inhuman treatment. Horace was a mild monitor. a court-satirist. tantrum for the soft times of Augustus. and more tantrum. for the grounds which I have already given. Juvenal was as proper for his times. as they for theirs ; his was an age that deserved a more terrible castigation ; frailties were more gross and unfastened. more heinous. more bucked up by the illustration of a autocrat. and more protected by his authorization. Therefore. wheresoever Juvenal references Nero. he means Domitian. whom he dares non attack in his ain individual. but scourges him by placeholder.
Heinsius urges in congratulations of Horace. that. harmonizing to the ancient art and jurisprudence of sarcasm. it should be nearer to comedy than calamity ; non reciting against frailty. but merely express joying at it. Neither Persius nor Juvenal were nescient of this. for they had both studied Horace. And the thing itself is obviously true. But as they had read Horace. they had likewise read Lucilius. of whom Persius says secuit urbem ; . . . et genuinum fregit in illis: significance Mutius and Lupus ; and Juvenal besides mentions him in these words: Ense velut stricto. quoties Lucilius ardens infremuit. etc. So that they thought the imitation of Lucilius was more proper to their intent than that of Horace. “They changed satire” ( says Holyday ) . “but they changed it for the better ; for the concern being to reform great frailties. castigation goes farther than warning ; whereas a ageless smile. like that of Horace. does instead anger than amend a adult male. ”
Therefore far that learned critic. Barten Holyday. whose reading and illustrations of Juvenal are every bit first-class as the poetry of his interlingual rendition and his English are feeble and pathetic. [ 1 ] For ‘tis non plenty to give us the significance of a poet. which I acknowledge him to hold performed most dependably. but he must besides copy his mastermind and his Numberss. every bit far as the English will come up to the elegance of the original. In few words. ‘tis merely for a poet to interpret a verse form. Holyday and Stapylton had non plenty considered this. when they attempted Juvenal: but I forbear contemplations ; merely I beg leave to take notice of this sentence. where Holyday says. “a ageless smile. like that of Horace. instead cholers than amends a adult male. ” [ 2 ] I can non give him up the mode of Horace in low sarcasm so easy. Let the castigation of Juvenal be ne’er so necessary for his new sort of sarcasm ; allow him recite as wittily and aggressively as he pleases ; yet still the nicest and most delicate touches of sarcasm consist in all right banter.
This. my Godhead. is your peculiar endowment. to which even Juvenal could non get. ‘Tis non reading. ‘tis non imitation of an writer. which can bring forth this choiceness ; it must be inborn ; it must continue from a mastermind. and peculiar manner of thought. which is non to be taught ; and hence non to be imitated by him who has it non from nature. How easy is it to name knave and scoundrel. and that wittily! But how difficult to do a adult male appear a sap. a dunce. or a rogue. without utilizing any of those abusive footings! To save the coarseness of the names. and to make the thing yet more badly. is to pull a full face. and to do the olfactory organ and cheeks stand out. and yet non to use any deepness of shadowing. This is the enigma of that baronial trade. which yet no maestro can learn to his learner ; he may give the regulations. but the bookman is ne’er the nearer in his pattern. Neither is it true that this choiceness of banter is violative. A witty adult male is tickled while he is hurt in this mode. and a sap feels it non.
The juncture of an discourtesy may perchance he given. but he can non take it. If it be granted. that in consequence this manner does more mischievousness ; that a adult male is in secret wounded. and though he be non reasonable himself yet the malicious universe will happen it out for him ; yet there is still a huge difference betwixt the frowsy butchery of a adult male. and the choiceness of a shot that separates the caput from the organic structure. and leaves it standing in its topographic point. A adult male may be capable. as Jack Ketch?s married woman said of his retainer. of a apparent piece of work. a bare hanging ; but to do a criminal dice sweetly was merely belonging to her hubby. [ 3 ] I wish I could use it to myself. if the reader would be sort adequate to believe it belongs to me. The character of Zimri in my Absalom is. in my sentiment. worth the whole verse form: it is non bloody. but it is pathetic plenty ; and he. for whom it was intended. was excessively witty to resent it as an hurt. [ 4 ] If I had railed. I might hold suffered for it rightly ; but I managed my ain work merrily. possibly more dextrously. I avoided the reference of great offenses. and applied myself to the stand foring of blindsides. and small extravagances ; to which. the wittier a adult male is. he is by and large the more objectionable [ exposed. vulnerable ] . It succeeded as I wished ; the jest went unit of ammunition. and he laughed at it in his bend who began the play.
‘Tis but necessary. that after so much has been said of sarcasm some definition of it should be given. Heinsius. in his thesiss on Horace. makes it for me. in these words: “Satire is a sort of poesy. without a series of action. invented for the purge of our heads ; in which human frailties. ignorance. and mistakes. and all things besides. which are produced from them in every adult male. are badly reprehended ; partially dramatically. partially merely. and sometimes in both sorts of speech production ; but. for the most portion. figuratively. and occultly ; dwelling in a low familiar manner. chiefly in a crisp and acrid mode of address ; but partially. besides. in a bantering and civil manner of jesting ; by which either hatred or laughter. or outrage. is moved. ” Where I can non but observe. that this obscure and perplexed definition. or instead description. of sarcasm. is entirely accommodated to the Horatian manner ; and excepting the plants of Juvenal and Persius. as foreign from that sort of verse form.
The clause in the beginning of it. without a series of action. distinguishes satire decently from stage-plays. which are all of one action. and one continued series of action. The terminal or range of sarcasm is to purge the passions ; so far it is common to the sarcasms of Juvenal and Persius. The remainder which follows is besides belonging to all three ; till he comes upon us. with the excepting clause. dwelling in a low familiar manner of address. which is the proper character of Horace ; and from which the other two. their award be it spoken. are far distant. But how come low status of manner. and the acquaintance of words. to be so much the properness of sarcasm. that without them a poet can be no more a ironist. than without risibility he can be a adult male? Is the mistake of Horace to be made the virtuousness and standing regulation of this verse form? Is the grande sophos of Persius. and the sublimity of Juvenal. to be circumscribed with the beastliness of words and coarseness of look? If Horace refused the strivings of Numberss. and the highness of figures. are they bound to follow so ill a case in point?
Let him walk afoot. with his tablet in his manus. for his ain pleasance ; but allow non them be accounted no poets. who choose to mount. and demo their horsemanship. Holyday is non afraid to state. that there was ne’er such a autumn. as from his odes to his sarcasms. and that he. injuriously to himself. untuned his harp. The olympian manner of Persius and Juvenal was new when they began it. but ‘tis old to us ; and what verse forms have non. with clip. received an change in their manner? “Which change. ” says Holyday. “is to aftertimes every bit good a warrant as the first. ” Has non Virgil changed the manners of Homer?s heroes in his ?neis?
Surely he has. and for the better: for Virgil?s age was more civilised and better bred. and he writ harmonizing to the niceness of Rome. under the reign of Augustus C?sar. non to the discourtesy of Agememnon?s age. or the clip of Homer. Why should we offer to restrict free liquors to one signifier. when we can non so much as confine our organic structures to one manner of dress? Would non Donne?s Satires. which abound with so much humor. look more charming. if he had taken attention of his words. and of his Numberss? But he followed Horace so really close that of necessity he must fall with him ; and I may safely state it of this present age. that if we are non so great marbless. as Donne. yet surely we are better poets.
But I have said adequate. and it may be excessively much. on this topic. Will your Lordship be pleased to protract my audience. merely so far. till I tell you my ain fiddling ideas. how a modern sarcasm should be made? I will non divert in the least from the principles and illustrations of the ancients. who were ever our best Masterss. I will merely exemplify them. and detect some of the concealed beauties in their designs. that we thereby may organize our ain in imitation of them. Will you delight but to detect. that Persius. the least in self-respect of all the three. has notwithstanding been the first who has discovered to us this of import secret. in the designing of a perfect sarcasm ; that it ought merely to handle of one topic ; to be confined to one peculiar subject ; or at least. to one chiefly. If other frailties occur in the direction of the head. they should merely be transiently lashed. and non be insisted on. so as to do the design two-base hit.
As in a drama of the English manner. which we call a tragi-comedy. there is to be but one chief design ; and though at that place be an underplot. or 2nd walk of amusing characters and escapades. yet they are subservient to the head fable. carried along under it. and assisting to it ; so that the play may non look a monster with two caputs. Therefore. the Copernican system of the planets makes the Moon to be moved by the gesture of the Earth. and carried about her eyeball. as a dependant of hers. Mascardi. in his discourse of the Doppia Fayola. or dual narrative in dramas. gives an case of it in the celebrated idyll of Guarini. called Il Pastor Fido ; where Corsica and the Satyr are the under parts ; yet we may detect. that Corsica is brought into the organic structure of the secret plan. and made subservient to it. ‘Tis certain that the Godhead humor of Horace was non nescient of this regulation. that a drama. though it consists of many parts. must yet be one in the action. and must drive on the achievement of one design ; for he gives this really precept. sit quodvis simplex duntaxar et unum ; yet he seems non much to mind it in his sarcasms. many of them dwelling of more statements than one ; and the 2nd without dependance on the first.
Casaubon has observed this before me. in his penchant of Persius to Horace ; and will hold his ain darling writer to be the first who found out and introduced this method of restricting himself to one topic. I know it may be urged in defence of Horace that this integrity is non necessary ; because the really word satura signifies a dish bountifully stored with all assortment of fruit and grains. Yet Juvenal. who calls his verse form a odds and ends. which is a word of the same meaning with satura. has chosen to follow the same method of Persius. and non of Horace ; and Boileau. whose illustration entirely is a sufficient authorization. has entirely confined himself in all his sarcasms. to this integrity of design. That assortment. which is non to be found in any one sarcasm. is. at least. in many. written on several occasions. And if assortment be of absolute necessity in every one of them. harmonizing to the etymology of the word. yet it may originate of course from one topic. as it is variously treated. in the several low-level subdivisions of it. all associating to the head. It may be illustrated consequently with assortment of illustrations in the subdivisions of it. and with every bit many principles as there are members of it ; which. wholly. may finish that ola. or odds and ends. which is decently a sarcasm.
Under this integrity of subject. or capable. is comprehended another regulation for honing the design of true sarcasm. The poet is bound. and that ex officio. to give his reader some one principle of moral virtuousness. and to admonish him against some one peculiar frailty or folly. Other virtuousnesss. subsidiary to the first. may be recommended under that main caput ; and other frailties or follies may be scourged. besides that which he chiefly intends. But he is chiefly to instill one virtuousness. and take a firm stand on that. Thus Juvenal. in every sarcasm demuring the first. ties himself to one principal informative point. or to the avoidance of moral immorality. Even in the sixth. which seems merely an arraignment of the whole sex of womankind. there is a latent warning to avoid sick adult females. by demoing how really few. who are virtuous and good. are to be found amongst them. But this. though the wittiest of all his sarcasms. has yet the least of truth or direction in it. He has run himself into his old bombastic manner. and about bury that he was non puting up for a moral poet.
Persius is ne’er desiring to us in some profitable philosophy. and in exposing the opposite frailties to it. His sort of doctrine is one which is the Stoic ; and every sarcasm is a remark on one peculiar tenet of that religious order. unless we will demur the first. which is against bad authors ; and yet even there he forgets non the principles of the Porch. In general. all virtuousnesss are everyplace to be praised and recommended to pattern ; and all frailties to be reprehended. and made either abominable or pathetic ; or else there is a cardinal mistake in the whole design.
I have already declared who are the lone individuals that are the equal object of private sarcasm. and who they are that may decently be exposed by name for public illustrations of frailties and follies ; and therefore I will problem your Lordship no farther with them. Of the best and finest mode of sarcasm. I have said plenty in the comparing betwixt Juvenal and Horace: ‘tis that crisp. well-bred manner of express joying a folly out of visage. of which your Lordship is the best maestro in this age. I will continue to the versification which is most proper for it. and add slightly to what I have said already on that topic. The kind of poetry which is called burlesque. consisting of eight syllables. or four pess. is that which our excellent Hudibras has chosen. I ought to hold mentioned him earlier. when I spoke of Donne ; but by a faux pas of an old man?s memory he was forgotten.
The worth of his verse form is excessively good known to necessitate my citation. and he is above my animadversion. His sarcasm is of the Varronian sort. though plain with prose. The pick of his Numberss is suited plenty to his design. as he has managed it ; but in any other manus. the shortness of his poetry. and the speedy returns of rime. had debased the self-respect of manner. And besides. the dual rime ( a necessary comrade of burlesque composing ) is non so proper for manfully sarcasm ; for it turns earnest excessively much to joke. and gives us a boylike sort of pleasance. It tickles awkwardly with a sort of hurting. to the best kind of readers: we are pleased unappreciatively. and. if I may state so. against our liking. We thank him non for giving us that unseasonable delectation. when we know he could hold given us a better. and more solid.
He might hold left that undertaking to others. who. non being able to set in idea. can merely do us grin with the bulge of a word of two or three syllables in the stopping point. ‘Tis. so. below so great a maestro to do usage of such a small instrument. But his good sense is perpetually reflecting through all he writes ; it affords us non the clip of happening mistakes. We pass through the levity of his rime. and are instantly carried into some admirable utile idea. After all. he has chosen this sort of poetry. and has written the best in it: and had he taken another. he would ever hold excelled ; as we say of a tribunal favourite. that whatsoever his office be. he still makes it topmost. and most good to himself.
The adeptness of your imaginativeness. my Godhead. has already prevented me ; and you know ahead. that I would prefer the poetry frequently syllables. which we call the English heroic. to that of eight. This is truly my sentiment. For this kind of figure is more spacious ; the idea can turn itself with greater easiness in a larger compass. When the rime comes excessively thick upon us. it straitens the look ; we are believing of the stopping point. when we should be employed in decorating the idea. It makes a poet giddy with turning in a infinite excessively narrow for his imaginativeness ; he loses many beauties. without deriving one advantage. For a burlesque rime I have already concluded to be none ; or. if it were. ‘tis more easy purchased in 10 syllables than in eight. In both occasions ‘tis as in a tennis-court. when the shots of greater force are given. when we strike out and play at length. Tassoni and Boileau have left us the best illustrations of this manner. in the Secchia Rapita. and the Lutrin ; and next them Merlin Coccaius in his Baldus. [ 5 ] I will talk merely of the two former. because the last is written in Latin poetry. The Secchia Rapita is an Italian verse form. a sarcasm of the Varronian sort.
‘Tis written in the stanza of eight. which is their step for heroic poetry. The words are stately. the Numberss smooth. the bend both of idea and words is happy. The first six lines of the stanza seem majestical and terrible ; but the two last turn them all into a pleasant ridicule. Boileau. if I am non much deceived. has modeled from hence his celebrated Lutrin. He had read the burlesque poesy of Scarron. with some sort of outrage. every bit witty as it was. and found nil in France that was worthy of his imitation: but he copied the Italian so good that his ain may go through for an original. He writes it in the Gallic heroic poetry. and calls it an epic verse form ; his topic is fiddling. but his poetry is baronial. I doubt non but he had Virgil in his oculus. for we find many admirable imitations of him. and some lampoons ; as peculiarly this transition in the 4th of the ?neids–
Nec tibi prima donna parcens. generis nec Dardanus auctor.
Perfide ; sed duris genuit Te cautibus horrens
Caucasus ; Hyrcan?que admorunt ubera tigres: [ 6 ] which he therefore translates. maintaining to the words. but changing the sense–
Non. ton pere a Paris. ne fut point boulanger:
Et tu n’es point du American ginseng de Gervais. l’horIoger ;
Ta mere Ne fut point la maitresse d’un coche:
Caucase dans Ses flancs te forma d’une roche:
Une tigresse affreuse. en quelque antre ecart
Te tantrum. avec boy lait. sucer SA cruaute .
And. as Virgil in his 4th Georgic. of the bees. perpetually raises the low status of his topic. by the highness of his words. and ennobles it by comparings drawn from imperiums. and from monarchs–
Admiranda tibi levium spectacula rerum.
Magnanimosque duces totiusque ordine gentis
Moress et studia. et populos. et pr?lia dicam. [ 7 ] and once more
At genus immortale Manet ; multosque per annos
Stat Fortuna domus. et avi numeratur avorum ; [ 8 ] we see Boileau prosecuting him in the same flights. and barely giving to his maestro. This. I think. my Godhead. to he the most beautiful and most baronial sort of sarcasm. Here is the stateliness of the heroic. finely assorted with the venom of the other ; and raising the delectation which otherwise would be level and vulgar. by the sublimity of the look. I could state slightly more of the daintiness of this and some other of his sarcasms ; but it might turn to his bias. if ‘twere carried back to France.
I have given your Lordship but this au naturel intimation. in what poetry and in what mode this kind of sarcasm may be best managed. Had I clip. I could enlarge on the beautiful bends of words and ideas which are as necessity in this as in heroic poesy itself of which the sarcasm is doubtless a species. With these beautiful bends I confess myself to hold been unacquainted. till about twenty old ages ago. in a conversation which I had with that baronial humor of Scotland. Sir George Mackenzie. he asked me why I did non copy in my poetries the bends of Mr. Waller and Sir John Denham. of which he repeated many to me. I had frequently read with pleasance. and with some net income. those two male parents of our English poesy. but had non earnestly plenty considered those beauties which gave the last flawlessness to their plants. Some scatterings of this sort Iliad besides once in my dramas ; but they were insouciant. and non designed.
But this intimation. therefore seasonably given to me. foremost made me reasonable of my ain wants. and brought me afterwards to seek for the supply of them in other English writers. I looked over the favorite of my young person. the celebrated Cowley ; there I found. alternatively of them. the points of humor. and oddities of quip. even in the Davideis. an heroic verse form. which is of an opposite nature to those childhoods ; but no elegant turns. either on the word or on the idea. Then I consulted a greater mastermind ( without discourtesy to the Maness of that baronial writer ) . I mean Milton. But as he endeavors everyplace to show Homer. whose age had non arrived to that choiceness. I found in him a true sublimity. exalted ideas. which were clothed with admirable Grecisms. and ancient words. which he had been delving from the mines of Chaucer and Spenser. and which. with all their gaucherie. had somewhat of venerable in them ; but I found non at that place neither that for which I looked.
At last I had resort to his maestro. Spenser. the writer of that immortal verse form called the Fairy Queen ; and there I met with that which I had been looking for so long in vain. Spenser had studied Virgil to every bit much advantage as Milton had done Homer ; and amongst the remainder of his Excellencies had copied that. Looking farther in-to the Italian. I found Tasso had done the same ; nay more. that all the sonnets in that linguistic communication are on the bend of the first idea ; which Mr. Walsh. in his late clever foreword to his verse form. has observed. In short. Virgil and Ovid are the two principal fountains of them in Latin poesy. And the Gallic at this twenty-four hours are so affectionate of them. that they judge them to be the first beauties ; deIicat et bien tourne are the highest citations which they bestow on somewhat which they think a chef-d’oeuvre.
An illustration of the bend on words. amongst a 1000 others. is that in the last book of Ovid?s Metamorphoses–
Heu! quantum scelus est. in entrails. entrails condi!
Congestoque avidum pinguescere corpore principal ;
Alteriusque animantem animantis vivere Leto.
An illustration on the bend both of ideas and words is to be found in Catullus. in the ailment of Ariadne. when she was left by Theseus–
Tum jam nulla viro juranti f?mina credat ;
Nulla viri speret sermones esse fideles ;
Qui. dum aliquid cupiens animus pr?gestit apisci.
Nil metuunt jurare. nihil promittere parcunt:
Sed simul Ac cupid? mentis satiata libido Eastern Time.
Dicta nihil metuere. nihil perjuria curant.
An extraordinary bend upon the words is that in Ovid?s Epistol? Heroidum. of Sappho to Phaon–
Si. nisi qu? forma poterit Te digna videri.
Nulla futura tua Eastern Time. nulla futura tua Eastern Time.
Last. a bend. which I can non state is perfectly on words. for the idea turns with them. is in the 4th Georgic of Virgil. where Orpheus is to have his married woman from Hell. on express status non to look on her boulder clay she was come on earth–
Cum subita incautum dementedness cepit amantem ;
Ignoscenda quidem. scirent Si ignoscere Manes. [ 9 ]
I will non burden your Lordship with more of them ; for I write to a maestro who understands them better than myself. But I may safely reason them to be great beauties. I might fall besides to the mechanic beauties of epic poetry ; but we have yet no English prosodia. non so much as a tolerable lexicon or a grammar ; so that our linguistic communication is in a mode brutal ; and what authorities will promote any one. or more. who are capable of polishing it. I know non: but nil under a public disbursal can travel through with it. And I instead fear a decline of the linguistic communication. than hope an promotion of it in the present age.
I am still talking to you. my Godhead. though. in all chance. you are already out of hearing. Nothing which my beastliness can bring forth is worthy of this long attending. But I am come to the last request of Abraham ; if there be ten righteous lines. in this huge foreword. save it for their interest ; and besides spare the following metropolis. because it is but a small one.
I would pardon the public presentation of this interlingual rendition. if it were all my ain ; but the better. though non the greater portion. being the work of some gentlemen. who have succeeded really merrily in their project. allow their Excellencies atone for my imperfectnesss. and those of my boies. I have perused some of the sarcasms. which are done by other custodies ; and they seem to me as perfect in their sort as anything I have seen in English poetry. The common manner which we have taken is non a actual interlingual rendition. but a sort of paraphrasis ; or slightly. which is yet more loose. betwixt a paraphrasis and mutant. It was non possible for us. or any work forces. to hold made it pleasant any other manner. If rendering the exact sense of those writers. about line for line. had been our concern. Barton Holyday had done it already to our custodies: and by the aid of his erudite notes and illustrations non merely of Juvenal and Persius. but what yet is more vague. his ain poetries. might be understood.
But he wrote for celebrity. and wrote to bookmans ; we write merely for the pleasance and amusement of those gentlemen and ladies. who. though they are non bookmans. are non nescient ; individuals of apprehension and good sense. who. non holding been familiar in the original. or at least non holding made Latin verse so much their concern as to be critics in it. would be glad to happen if the humor of our two great writers be answerable to their celebrity and repute in the universe. We have. hence. endeavored to give the populace all the satisfaction we are able in this sort.
And if we are non wholly so faithful to our writer. as our predecessors Holyday and Stapylton. yet we may dispute to ourselves this congratulations. that we shall be far more pleasing to our readers. We have followed our writers at greater distance. though non step by measure. as they have done ; and oftentimes they have gone so near. that they have trod on the heels of Juvenal and Persius. and ache them by their excessively near attack. A baronial writer would non be pursued excessively close by a transcriber. We lose his spirit. when we think to take his organic structure. The grosser portion remains with us. but the psyche is flown off in some baronial look. or some delicate bend of words. or thought. Therefore Holy-day. who made this manner his pick. seized the significance of Juvenal ; but the poesy has ever escaped him.
They who will non allow me that pleasance is one of the terminals of poesy. but that it is merely a agency of compassing the lone terminal. which is direction. must yet let. that. without the agencies of pleasance. the direction is but a bare and dry doctrine ; a rough readying of ethical motives which we may hold from Aristotle and Epictetus. with more net income than from any poet. Neither Holyday nor Stapylton have imitated Juvenal in the poetical portion of him. his enunciation and his elocution. Nor had they been poets. as neither of them were. yet. in the manner they took. it was impossible for them to hold succeeded in the poetic portion.
The English poetry. which we call heroic. consists of no more than 10 syllables ; the Latin hexameter sometimes rises to seventeen ; as. for
illustration. this poetry in Virgil–Pulverulenta putrem sonitu quatit ungula campum.
Here is the difference of no less than seven syllables in a line. betwixt the English and the Latin. Now the medium of these is approximately 14 syllables ; because the dactyl is a more frequent pes in hexameters than the spondee. But Holyday. without sing that he wrote with the disadvantage of four syllables less in every poetry. enterprises to do one of his lines to grok the sense of one of Juvenal?s. Harmonizing to the falseness of the proposition was the success. He was forced to herd his poetry with ill-sounding monosyllabic words. of which our brutal linguistic communication affords him a wild plentifulness ; and by that means he arrived at his academic terminal. which was to do a actual interlingual rendition. His poetries have nil of poetry in them. but merely the worst portion of it. the rime ; and that. into the deal. is far from good.
But. which is more unbearable. by jaming his ill-chosen. and worse-sounding monosyllabic words so near together. the really sense which he endeavors to explicate is become more vague than that of his writer ; so that Holyday himself can non he understood. without as big a commentary as that which he makes on his two writers. For my ain portion. I can do a displacement to happen the significance of Juvenal without his notes ; but his interlingual rendition is more hard than his writer. And I find beauties in the Latin to compensate my strivings ; but. in Holyday and Stapylton. my ears. in the first topographic point. are mortally offended ; and so their sense is so perplexed. that I return to the original. as the more pleasing undertaking. every bit good as the more easy.
This must be said for our interlingual rendition. that. if we give non the whole sense of Juvenal. yet we give the most considerable portion of it ; we give it. in general. so clearly. that few notes are sufficient to do us apprehensible. We make our writer at least look in a poetic frock. We have really made him more sounding. and more eloquent. than he was before in English ; and have endeavored to do him talk that sort of English which he would hold spoken had he lived in England. and had written to this age. If sometimes any of us ( and ‘tis but rarely ) make him show the imposts and manners of our native state instead than of Rome. ‘tis either when there was some sort of analogy betwixt their imposts and ours. or when. to do him more easy to vulgar apprehensions. we give him those manners which are familiar to us.
But I defend non this invention. ‘tis adequate if I can pardon it. For to talk unfeignedly. the manners of states and ages are non to be confounded ; we should either do them English. or go forth them Roman. If this can neither be defended nor excused. allow it be pardoned. at least. because it is acknowledged ; and so much the more easy. as being a mistake which is ne’er committed without some pleasance to the reader.
[ 1 ] Holyday. an Oxford bookman. had produced interlingual renditions of both Persius and Juvenal which Dryden remarks on here and elsewhere.
[ 2 ] Sir Robert Stapylton*?s interlingual rendition of the First Six Satires of Juvenal appeared in 1644. and a complete version was published three old ages subsequently.
[ 3 ] Jack Ketch. the most celebrated public exhere.
[ 4 ] Sir Robert Stapylton?s interlingual rendition of the First Six Satires of Juvenal appeared in 1644. and a complete version was published three old ages subsequently.
[ 5 ] Jack Ketch. the most celebrated public executioner of the century. whose atrocity was ill-famed.
[ 6 ] Zimri. in Dryden?s ‘Absalom and Achitophel. ” is the 2nd Duke of Buckingham.
[ 7 ] La Secchia Rapita ( The Stolen Bucket ) was declared by its writer. Alessandro Tassoni ( 1565-1635 ) . to be the first modern mock-heroic piece. Boileau?s Le Lutrin ( The Reading-Desk ) . 1674. is the most successful Gallic illustration of the mock heroic poem.
[ 8 ] Neither a goddess female parent was to thee. / Nor Dardanus. the laminitis of thy race. / Traitor! but bred thee. jagged with flinty drops. / The Caucasus. and Hyrcanian tigresses / Their dugs approached. ( Translation by R. C. Singleton. )
[ 9 ] Shows of pigmy things. / That claim thy admiration. –both the high-souled heads. / And wonts. and chases. and kins. and wars. / Of a whole state duly will I sing. ( Singleton. )
[ 10 ] Yet imperishable stopping points / The line of descent. and stands house through many a twelvemonth / The luck of the house. and ascendants / Of ascendants are counted. ( Singleton )
[ 11 ] When sudden lunacy seized / The heedless lover. –pardonable certain. / If Manes knew how to excuse. ( Singleton. )