Before its collapse, Enron was one of the world’s

The Role of Experts in the Enron Scandal

Before its prostration, Enron was one of the world’s taking natural gas, electricity and communications companies, with over 20,000 employees. Before the company went under in 2001, one-year grosss averaged over 100 billion U.S. dollars, andFortune Magazinenamed it “America’s Most Advanced Company” six old ages in a row. Enron was able to keep itself as a corporation with low debt and high grosss and net incomes via originative and systematic accounting fraud, away balance sheet trades, and by maintaining its employees and its hearer, Arthur Anderson, in line. The company has since become something of a symbol of corporate corruptness, although it was shortly followed by others ( WorldCom, Tyco, Xerox, Merrill Lynch, etc. ) . This paper will analyze the function of experts and adept cognition in the matter.

>We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

Enron succeeded in perpetuating the myth of hyperbolic grosss by “treating the turnover of trading through its on-line subordinate as gross ; bolstered net incomes by booking income instantly on contracts that would take up to ten old ages to finish ; shifted debts into partnerships it created and controlled, even though defined by hearers as off balance sheet ; manipulated its histories at the terminal of each one-fourth ; and employed fiscal derived functions and other complex minutess sharply to the same end” ( Hill, Chaffin and Fidler, 2002 ) . Net incomes were turned into losingss, and revenue enhancements into revenue enhancement shelters.Most disturbing was the fact that a coaction of professional advisors – attorneies, comptrollers and bankers – went along with it ( Schifferes, 2003 ) .

After Enron’s prostration, the inquiry on everyone’s heads was: how could this go on? Where were the precautions? The regulators? The experts? The truth is that several factors contributed to this monolithic deficiency of watchfulness. For starting motors, at the clip of the incident, regulators were hindered by the utmost growing in trade good forwards, options, barters and commodity-linked intercrossed merchandises ( Jameson, 265 ) . Furthermore, while the General Accounting Office Report ( GAO ) produced a study entitled “Financial Derivatives – Action Needed to Protect the Financial System, ” which attempted to “lessen the hazards of derived functions, compel derivative traders and end-users to unwrap sufficiently the hazards associated with derivative places, ” and included such recommendations as an “overhaul of the fiscal regulative system and the acceptance of sufficient accounting and revelation criterions, ” it was met with utmost resistance ( ibid, 277 ) .

Alan Greenspan, Chairman of the Federal Reserve, said that the recommendations were “neither necessary nor desirable at this clip, and we must non lose sight of the fact that fiscal markets are regulated by private parties, ” and the taking fiscal trade associations of America said the recommendations would “increase the cost and cut down the handiness of these indispensable transactions” ( ibid, 278 ) .

Other studies were met with similar reactions. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency’s Banking Circular 277, along with the Group of Thirty Report and The Division of Banking Supervision and Regulation’s “Examining Risk Management and Internal Controls for Trading Activities of Banking Organisations, ” contained legion recommendations, such as that “market and recognition hazard be on a regular basis quantified, monitored and controlled ; hearers, operations and hazard direction systems be sufficiently sophisticated to pull off derived functions instruments and activities ; sacking agreements and indirect understandings be considered to cut down hazards ; Bankss guarantee that counterparties have the needed legal and regulative authorization to make enforceable understandings ; and that places and hazards be marked-to-market” ( ibid, 275 ) .

The studies besides covered accounting, capital adequateness and legal issues, and highlighted the importance of “managing market, legal and operational hazards and the necessity of sufficiently sophisticated audit processs and internal controls” ( ibid, 276 ) . However, one ground that the recommendations failed to do an impact was because about across the board they emphasised the demand for active supervising by senior direction and the Board of Directors. The fact is that if a company from the top-down is corrupt to the nucleus, so ordinance is about impossible.

However, this still doesn’t answer the inquiry as to how Enron was allowed to acquire away with what it was making for so long. And to reply this, we must look at the function of the experts. In footings of risk-assessment, while it is often assumed that there is a broad spread between ballad people and experts, the truth is that the latter are non immune to judgemental prejudices ( Fischoff, Lichtenstein, Slovic, Derby and Keeney, 33 ) . While their entree to knowledge and see instructs them in footings of turn uping information and recognising solutions, many hazard jobs involve doing opinions based on limited informations and uncomplete cognition ( De Groot, 1965 ) . In making this, it is possible for experts ( merely like laypeople ) to take intuition over scientific discipline ( Fischoff, etc et al. , 33 ) . And such was the instance with Enron.

Most of the people who should hold known what was traveling on, were either intuitively blind to the world, or, to utilize a laymen’s term, “asleep at the wheel.” While what went on at Enron was reasonably contained, and, as mentioned, known to merely a choice few ( employees, attorneies, bankers, etc. ) , the fact is that the warning marks were at that place, and were merely ignored or explained off. And the world is that this type of scenario happens more frequently than is by and large assumed:

“Judgemental mistakes may be less troublesome to effectual determination devising than the failure to recognize the possibility of such mistakes. A decision-making procedure might acquire by with instead faulty inputs every bit long as it acknowledges that they may be fallible. But when the top experts are bring forthing the inputs, no 1 else may be knowing plenty to rectify mistakes or topographic point indefensible premises. Thus the experts must judge the quality of their ain judgments” ( Fischoff, Slovic and Lichtenstein, 1977 ) .

The job with Enron, like the job in many state of affairss, is non in acquiring a incorrect reply, but in neglecting to hold on how great the possibility of mistake was ( Fischoff etc et al. , 35 ) . Furthermore, nevertheless mathematical or scientific the research may be, put on the line appraisal is all about people:

“For an attack to help the decision-making procedure, it must do premises about behavior and, in peculiar, the cognition of experts, lay people, and determination shapers. When these premises are unrecognized or in mistake, they can take to bad determinations and distortions…in rule, an attack should be capable of describing that it is non up to the undertaking, either because the uncertainnesss are so great as to render its decisions indeterminate or because important uncertainnesss remain in countries that the method does non turn to. When an attack fails to measure the sturdiness of its ain decision, it implies that what it says goes, or is at least the best conjecture available ( ibid, 35-36 ) .

One method for maintaining experts and regulators “in check” is by affecting the populace who, after all, are the 1s most affected when things go amiss. Public assurance in footings of acceptable hazard is merely every bit good as the quality of the attack. Their engagement is good in that it will state the experts involved whether or non they need to make over their decisions, by “recruiting more information, measuring value issues more exhaustively, confer withing extra persons, altering the job definition, or utilizing an alternate method” ( ibid, 35 ) .

Another manner to avoid what happened at Enron is the debut of an external hearer, in combination with the proper precautions to implement his or her objectiveness, unity and independency ( Ojo, 2006 ) . This solution is portion of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which was introduced after the Enron fiasco to discourage corporate fraud and restore investor assurance. The Act established a new public bureau, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, which was charged with “overseeing, regulation, inspecting, and training accounting houses in their functions as hearers of public companies. The Act besides covered such issues as hearer independency, corporate administration and enhanced fiscal disclosure” ( Cunningham, 23 ) .

The aims of Sarbanes-Oxley are as follows: “To better the quality and truth of fiscal coverage ; to cut down fraud and false accounting ; to raise consciousness of internal controls ; to increase executive duty for reported Numberss ; and to beef up the independency of audit firms” ( Ojo, 2006 ) .

Enron’s prostration proved that equal reappraisal and self-regulation are no longer plenty. It besides showed that the experts are non ever right, or, possibly more accurately, are sometimes no different than laypeople in footings of their opinions and determinations. While all of the Sarbanes-Oxley recommendations are possible ( and have been instated, more or less, since Enron’s prostration ) , they will make no good without the parts of experts who can be argus-eyed, genuinely independent and, above all, rational and scientific in their appraisals. While at the minute the corporate landscape is reasonably unagitated, lone clip will state if another dirt will interrupt.


Beattie, V. and Fearnley, S. “Auditor Independence and Non Audit Services.”

hypertext transfer protocol: //

Cunningham, Lawrence. “The Sarbanes-Oxley Yawn: Heavy Rhetoric, Light Reform ( And it Might Just Work ) .” University of Connecticut Law Review, Vol 36, 2003.

De Groot, A.Thought and Choice in Chess. The Hague: Mouton and Company, 1965.

“Enron: The existent scandal.” The Economist. January 17, 2002.

hypertext transfer protocol: // story_id=940091

Fischoff, B. , Lichtenstein, S. , Slovic, P. , Derby, S. , and Keeney, R.L.Acceptable Hazard. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

Fischoff, B. , Slovic, P. and Lichtenstein, S. “Knowing With Certainty: The Appropriateness of Extreme Confidence.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 3, 1977.

Hill, Andrew, Chaffin, Joshua and Fidler, Stephen. “Enron: Virtual Company, Virtual Profits.” Financial Times. March 19, 2002.

Ojo, Marianne. “Avoiding Another Enron: The Role of the External Auditor in Financial Regulation and Supervision.” June, 2006.

hypertext transfer protocol: //

“Risk Management and Risk Perceptions.” Nuclear Energy Economics and Policy Analysis. May 3, 2004.

Schifferes, Steve. “Enron’s Trail of Deception.” BBC News. February 13, 2003.